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Bottled Water Industry in India

 
 

  Introduction
  Bottled Water Industry in India
  Bottled water top players in India
  History of Bottled water in India
  Variety of packages
  Why Bottled water?
  Bottled Water: How Safe?
  Water resources over-exploited
  Bottled water companies earn high profits
  Plastic Bottles Pollution
  The anti-bottling protests
  Pro-tap water consciousness
  Bottled Water law in India
  Health Issue-Purity of bottled water
  New development in bottled water industry
  Bottled water full line : Video  

  Introduction

   Bottled water

   Water is the most important necessity for life. The drinking-water needs for individuals vary depending on the climate, physical activity and the body culture. but for average consumers it is estimated to be about two to four litres per day. The growing number of cases of Water-born diseases, increasing water pollution, increasing urbanization,  increasing scarcity of Clean and Safe Drinking Water Quality etc. have made the bottled water business just like other consumer items. Scarcity of potable and wholesome water at railway stations, tourists spots, and role of tourism corp. etc. has also added to the growth.



   Indians currently spending about $330m a year on bottled water, analysts estimate. The packaged water market constitutes 15 per cent of the overall packaged beverage industry, which has annual sales of at least $2.6bn, Deepak Jolly, a spokesperson for Coca-Cola India said. Naveen Luthra, CEO, Mulshi Springs says," the bottled water market in India, selling an estimated million bottles a day, makes the natural bottled water market a mere 6% of the total bottled water market in India. The natural bottled water market is growing at a phenomenal 40-50% a year".

   Almost all the major international and national brands water bottles are available in Indian market  right from the malls to railway stations, bus stations, grocery stores and even at panwala's shop. Before few years bottle water. was considered as the rich people's choice, but now it is penetrated even in rural areas. The growth and status of Indian Bottled Industry in comparison  with  Western or Asian market, India is far behind in terms of  quantum, infrastructure, professionalism and standards implementation. The per capita consumption of mineral water in India is a mere 0.5-liter compared to 111 liter in Europe and 45-liter in USA.   Also As per UN study conducted in 122 countries, in connection with water quality,

   APJ Abdul Kalam Ex-President of India has urged youngsters on July 17, 2010 to be aware of water conservation techniques to avoid grave water crisis in future. `"It is so sad that today, people are forced to buy water in plastic bottles. I am told that bottled water industry is worth nearly 10000 crore rupees and even big companies like the Coke and Pepsi are involved in this bottling of water and making money. So, it is imperative that we ought to save water," he added.  Do not be surprise if today's bottles water industry becomes next Oil industry by 2025.

   If oil is the focal point of world conflict now, it is possible that water will be the next battleground among monopoly capitalists and even among nations. Prices of water and water services keep on increasing because most of our puPepsiCo's first premium water to make appearanceblic water utilities have already been privatized by the government. Private beverage and water companies have been granted by the government with permits to practically control and operate our natural springs and water sources in natural parks and protected areas for water production and processing plants.

  The bottled water category is growing at a rapid pace. The branded`market is 40 % of the category and non- branded contributes to 60% of the market. The category is growing at a rate of 30%. Bisleri is the market leader in mineral water in India with a 60% market share within organized mineral water category. Three key players mainly dominate the Indian Bottled Water Market Parle Bisleri, Coca Cola India Inc Kinley and Pepsico India Holdings Pvt. Limited. This market is expected to grow at a 30% rate in the next 7 years. In 2010 the revenue generated by this market was over $250 million.

 

Development in bottled water industry

 Coconut

Dabur India has announced the launch of 100% natural tender coconut water under the Real Activ brand.

More...

Students from a London based industrial design department strived to create a blob of water that serves as an edible source of water. This blob of water is called ‘Ooho’ and it very safe and sterile for consumption
More...

   Bottled Water Industry in India

  The overall packaged bottled water in India is estimated to touch the Rs 10,000 croremark in the 2012-13 fiscal, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19%, says a new report by Ikon Marketing Consultants. Presently, this market is estimated at Rs 8,000 crore, and could touch Rs15,000 crore by 2015, the report adds. While Bisleri mineral Water continues as the top brand with a 36% share among national players, Coca-Cola's Kinley follows with 25% share, followed by Aquafina at 15%. Other smaller brands include Parle Agro's Bailley, Kingfisher and McDowells No. 1, according to the report. The global bottled water market, which saw an increase of 40-45% over the past five years, is currently valued at close to US$ 85-90 billion, the report adds.

   The domestic market is split between three sets of players -- national brands with a pan India presence worth around Rs 4,000 crore, local brands manufactured by registered plants but restricted to regions estimated to have a combined turnover of Rs 2,400 crore and unorganised local brands estimated at Rs 1,600 crore. The report estimates that there are over 2,500 brands in this category, of which over three-fourths are local.

   The non-traditional category, or bulk packs, (with over 5 litre capacity) is growing rapidly, and has a current share of over 40% share. "The rising trend of bulk water consumption in homes and institutional segments will pave the way for bulk water packs to acquire half of the total bottled water market within next four-five years," the report adds. According to a national-level study,  making bottled water is today a cottage industry in the country. Leave alone the metros, where a bottled-water manufacturer can be found even in a one-room shop, in every medium and small city and even rural areas there are bottled water manufacturers. 

   While India ranks in the top 10 largest bottled water consumers in the world, its per capita per annum consumption of bottled water is estimated to be five litres which is comparatively lower than the global average of 24 litres. Today it is one of India's fastest growing industrial sectors. Between 1999 and 2004, the Indian bottled water market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25 per cent - the highest in the world. The  total annual bottled water consumption in India had tripled to 5 billion liters in 2004 from 1.5 billion liters in 1999. Global consumption of bottled water was nearing 200 billion liters in 2006.

  Bottled water top players in India`

   The market leader is Bisleri International, which boasts a 40 per cent share. It is followed by Coca- Coca’s Kinley (around 25 per cent) and PepsiCo’s Aquafina (around 10 per cent).

  The top players in bottled water industry in India are the major international giants like Coca cola, Pepsi, Nestle and noticeable presence of national players like Mount Everest, Manikchand, Kingfisher, Mohan Meakins, SKN Breweries , Indian Railways   so on. With increasing competition, this sector will register a robust growth in 2010, predict industry analysts. 

   To take on rivals in this sector, PepsiCo India is drawing up a fresh game plan which includes, investment in capacity enhancement, packaging initiatives and below-the-line activities to pump up volumes in the over-crowded category. Meanwhile, swadeshi major Parle Agro is extending the manufacturing facility for Bailley from 29 to 60 plants this year. While swadeshi major Bisleri  International is beefing up its distribution, manufacturing and marketing  operations, Coca-Cola India is sharpening its focus on packaging initiatives of Kinley to woo new consumes. In essence, the packaged water industry in India will soon witness a major tussle between swadeshi and videshi players to gain market and mind share. 

  The western region accounts for 40 per cent of the market and the eastern region just 10. However, the bottling plants are concentrated in the southern region - of the approximately 1,200 bottling water plants in India, 600 are in Tamil Nadu. But a major problem is southern India, especially Tamil Nadu, is water starved. 
  Top multinational players such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have been trying for the past decade to capture the Indian bottled water market. Today they have captured a significant portion of it. However, Parle Bisleri continues to hold 40 per cent of the market share. Kinley and Aquafina are fast catching up, with Kinley holding 20-25 per cent of the market and Aquafina approximately 10 per cent. The rest, including the smaller players, have 20-25 % of the market share.

   History of Bottled water in India

   Mineral bottled water in India under the name 'Bisleri' was first introduced in Mumbai by Bisleri Ltd., a company of Italian origin in 1965. Mineral bottled water were in glass bottles in two varieties - bubbly and still in 1965 This company was started by Signor Felice who first brought the idea of selling bottled water in India.

 

Ramdev’s Patanjali plans Packaged water

 Ramdev plans to enter the bottled water market from next month. “The brand ‘Divya Jal’ will be available in and around Lucknow and Haridwar first,” he said. Two bottling plants (in Haridwar and Lucknow), each having a daily capacity of one lakh bottles, have been set up.



  PepsiCo. to set up largest beverage plant in India in Andhra

 The first phase of the plant, with a capacity to handle 1.2 million litres per day, will be completed by the third or fourth quarter of FY15 at an investment of Rs450 crore. The manufacturer of brands such as Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7Up, Mirinda (aerated drinks), Aquafina (bottled water), Tropicana (fruit juices), Gatorade (sports drink), Lay’s (snacks) and Quaker (breakfast food), has 38 beverage bottling plants and three food plants in the country. PepsiCo’s top eight brands generate a business of about Rs.1,000 crore each.

  Packaged drinking water project 'Rail Neer' to come at Sambhar Lake

  Amma Mineral Water in Tamil Nadu

  Jayalalithaa launches low-cost mineral water scheme brand name AMMA water bottle.

  Development in bottled water industry 2013
 20-litre water for Rs 6 by AMC
The proposal to set up a mineral water plant at Kotarpur with investment  The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation will soon set up a packaged drinking water plant in the city which will meet its requirement. It also plans to sell 20 litre bottles of water at less than half the market price. The plant will have the capacity to generate 2,000 litres of natural mineral water per hour, and 36 lakh litres per annum.

  

   Parle bought over Bisleri (India) Ltd. In 1969 and started bottling Mineral water in  glass bottles under the brand name 'Bisleri'. Later Parle switched over to PVC non- returnable bottles and finally advanced to PET containers. Since 1995 Mr.Ramesh J. Chauhan has started expanding Bisleri operations substantially and the turn over has multiplied more than 20 times over a period of 10 years and the average growth rate has been around 40% over this period. Presently it have 8 plants and 11 franchisees all over India. Bisler command a 60% market share of the organized market.  
  Currently, Bailley has a national presence in 5 lakh retail outlets across the country. “We plan to increase manufacturing plants for Bailley from 29 to 60,  presently 40 plants are operational and few more will be ready for operations over the next few months,” informed Nadia Chauhan, joint managing director of Parle Agro.

  Variety of packages

   Bottled water is sold in a variety of packages: pouches and glasses, 330 ml bottles, 500 ml bottles, one- litre bottles and even 20- to 50-litre bulk water packs. The formal bottled water business in India can be divided broadly into three segments in terms of cost: premium natural mineral water, natural mineral water and packaged drinking water.       
  Premium natural mineral water includes brands such as Evian, San Pelligrino and Perrier, which are imported and priced between Rs.80 and Rs.110 a litre. Natural mineral water, with brands such as Himalayan and Catch, is priced around Rs.20 a litre. Packaged drinking water, which is nothing but treated water, is the biggest segment and includes brands such as Parle, Bisleri, Coca-Cola's Kinley and PepsiCo's Aquafina. They are priced in the range of Rs.10-12 a litre. The FDA also classifies some bottled water according to its origin.

  Artesian well water    Water from a well that taps an aquifer--layers of porous rock, sand and earth that contain water--which is under pressure from surrounding upper layers of rock or clay. 
 Mineral water.    Water from an underground source that contains at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids. Minerals and trace elements must come from the source of the underground water. They cannot be added later.
 Spring water   Derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the earth's surface. Spring water must be collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. If some external force is used to collect the water through a borehole, the water must have
the same composition and quality as the water that naturally flows to the surface.

  Well water.  Water from a hole bored or drilled into the ground, which taps into an aquifer.

   Tap Water  Some bottled water also comes from municipal sources--in other words--the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled.

   Daab water in bottles: Chief minister Mamata Banerjee's focus on small investors will soon see packaged coconut water in local stores in 2013. The state food processing department is currently studying a state-of-the-art technique for packaging bottles of daab water. It will collaborate with the Indian Institute of Packaging to sell coconut water and highlight that fact that one portion of coconut water is equivalent to three portions of water.

 Why Bottled water?

   Millions of people, both in rural and urban India, suffer from inadequate or no tap water supply.  Even some parts of Mumbai, the country's financial capital, get a mere two hours of daily water supply. The city's Virar suburb gets 45 minutes. So bottled water is much in demand by residents - even though the businesses profiting from the sales are thriving from access to public water sources. 
   Bottled water fills a void created by government failure to address basic services, Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute writes in its World Water report.  "In many parts of the world, tap water is not  available or safe to drink," writes . "In these regions, the failure of governments to provide basic water services has opened the door to private companies and vendors filling a critical need, albeit at a very high cost to consumers."  The institute reasons that governments should tap into spending on commercial water by consumers to secure funds to provide safe water at fraction of the cost. 
  Bottled water  has been treated by distillation, reverse osmosis, or other suitable process and that meets the definition of "purified water".  The bottled water treatments include: 
 *  Distillation. In this process, water is turned into a vapor. Since minerals are too heavy to vaporize, they are left behind, and the vapors are condensed into water again.

   Reverse osmosis.  Water is forced through membranes to remove minerals in the water.
 *  Absolute 1 micron filtration.   Water flows through filters that remove particles larger than one micron in size, such as "Cryptosporidium", a parasitic protozoan.
 * Ozonation.  Bottlers of all types of waters typically use ozone gas, an antimicrobial agent, to disinfect the water instead of chlorine, since chlorine can leave residual taste and odor to the water.

Kerala Water Authority to bottle drinking water

 With an aim to provide quality drinking water at an affordable price to the common man, the Kerala cabinet approved in principal a proposal of the Kerala Water Authority to set up a bottling plant.

   

  Coca-cola's Dehradun plant
  Atul Singh, Coca-Cola's India and South West Asia CEO and President has been promoted by the company as Deputy President of the Pacific Group with effect from July 1. Singh would now be responsible for the Greater China Korea (GC&K) and India and Southwest Asia (INSWA) Business Units.

  Nestlé Hosts First Wind Turbines at Bottled Water Plant

  As part of Nestlé Waters North America’s longterm renewable energy plan, Wind Energy   will power 30 percent of the entire bottled water facility.Nestlé is celebrating its first wind energy project in the world with the hosting of two wind turbines at its Nestlé Waters North America (NWNA) bottling plant in Cabazon, Calif. The turbines will provide wind power for 30 percent of the facility where the company produces its Arrowhead and Nestlé Pure Life brand bottled waters.  
  
 6 more Rail Neer bottling plants

  In the railway Budget 2013 on February 26,  Railways to set up six more Rail Neer bottling plants
   
 Coca-Cola introducing Dasani Drops
 The Coca-Cola is introducing its Dasani Drops in coming weeks, which can be squeezed into water for some on-the-spot fruity flavor. The drops are popular because they come in small, portable containers.  

   Bottled Water: How Safe?

   The bottled water industry has spent billions over the past decade to sell you on the idea that bottled water is better than tap water. Well the short answer is they are both unhealthy. One of the most ironic parts of the bottled water tragedy is that the water bottling industry gets the water free, filters it, bottles it and sells it back to us at 1,900% profit. The ironic part is that tap water is legislated to be 7.0 pH neutral. They first dump a TON of cholrine in the water to kill off all the bad bacteria, this makes it highly acidic.
  In India around 100 companies sell an estimated 424 million litres of bottled water valued at around Rs 200 crore in the country annually.Most bottlers claim that their water is 100 per cent bacteria-free, safe,  tastier and healthier. But is the water in these bottles really safe to drink? Do they conform to international or national standards? 

   To find out, the Ahmedabad-based Consumer Education and Research Society (CERS), an independent non-profit institution with a sophisticated product-testing laboratory, recently carried out a detailed study on 13 major brands of bottled water available in the country. The national brands -- Bisleri (separate samples were taken from their units in Bangalore, Ghaziabad, Calcutta and Baroda) and Bailley (Mumbai and Surat) -- were selected on the basis of their dominant position in the overall market. Bisil (Mehsana), Golden Eagle (Chennai), Aquaspa (Mumbai),Saiganga (Ahmednagar), Nirantar (Thane), Trupthi (Chennai) and Yes (Nadiad) were included because of their regional popularity. To conform to international standards for such testing, 21 bottles of each brand were tested in the CERS laboratory against "analytical" and "sensory"  parameters as well as for "microbiological" contamination. To ensure fairness, the results were sent to the individual companies for their comments. 
  So how safe is bottled water? Not that safe, says the CERS survey. As many as 10 of the 13 brands had foreign floating objects in clear violation of norms. Again during a surprise inspection by the health committee chairman Manjunatha Reddy and team at two mineral water units in the Bangalore on January 11, 2011, it was found that mineral water production unit owners were bottling borewell water. The units were also illegally using several branded labels on the bottles to market the water. The standing committee visited a mineral water production unit called AM Enterprises and found the owner selling water without an ISI mark from the Bureau of India Standards. He was found mixing mineral water with borewell water and selling it in cans to the public.

In water ATMs at Re 1 for 10 litres

A set of new “ATMs” near Bangalore has created a splash. 
For the “ATMs” dispense not money, but pure drinking water, at Re 1 for 10 litres, in a project conceived by Congress MLA Shivkumar in his Kanakapura constituency. “I had campaigned with the slogan ‘If our PM and ministers can drink bottled water, why not the villagers?’  said Shivkumar, referring to the chain of 20 “water ATMs”.
 The kiosks resemble the Mother Dairy outlets. In Kanakapura, one gets 10 litres of water for every rupee coin dropped. “More such kiosks are planned. Our aim is to have 33 within a short time,” said Shivkumar.

  Water resources over-exploited

    The majority of the bottling plants  are dependent on groundwater. They create huge water stress in the areas where they operate because groundwater is also the main source - in most places the only source - of drinking water in India.This has created huge conflict between the community and the bottling plants. 

  Private companies in India can siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the groundwater law in the country is archaic and not in tune  with the realities of modern capitalist societies. The existing law says that "the person who owns the land owns the groundwater beneath". This means that, theoretically, a person can buy one square metre of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding areas and the law of land cannot object to it. This law is the core of the conflict between the community and the companies as they are making the business of bottled water in the country highly lucrative. 
  Take for instance the case of Coca-Cola's bottling plant in drought-prone Kala Dera near Jaipur. Coca-Cola gets its water free except for a tiny cess (for discharging the wastewater) it pays to the State Pollution Control Board - a little over Rs.5,000 a year during 2000-02 and Rs.24,246 in 2003. It extracts half a million litres of water every day - at a cost of 14 paise per 1,000 litres. So, a Rs.10 per litre Kinley water has a raw material cost of just 0.02-0.03 paise. (It takes about two to three litres of groundwater to make one litre of bottled water.) 

   On April 7, more than 1,500 villagers defied a police cordon and marched to Coca-Cola's bottling plant in Mehdiganj village, Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh state, demanding that the company immediately shut down its bottling plant. In January, the New Delhi-based Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) advised Coca-Cola to shut a bottling plant in the  drought-stricken state of Rajasthan. 
   India's Ministry of Water Resources has ranked 80% of ground water resources in  Rajasthan as  "over- exploited" and nearly 34% resources as "dark/ critical", the gravest ranking across the country

  Invention of the Water ATM

  Anand Shah’s Sarvajal is bringing clean water to India. Sarvajal came with the invention of the Water ATM, which enabled them to gain even deeper penetration into decentralized rural communities. “You need three to four thousand people living in a village to make even our smallest filtration machine viable,” Shah explains.  This  ATM, a solar- powered, off-grid tank, regulated by a smart card. 

  You can put this ATM in a packet of maybe 50 households, deliver water there once a day, and they can come pick up water when they like it.

  Bottled water companies earn high profits

   What is amazing is that people are prepared to pay Rs. 12 for a liter of water-in India especially when the cost of material input (0.25 paisa per liter excluding labors cost) pales into insignificance before the price of the product.

   Up to 40% of bottled water comes from the same source as tap water, but is sold back to consumers at hundreds of times the cost, says the website of the North American "Think Outside the Bottle" campaign. Not only the Coca-Cola but there are thousands of brands in India's $445 million packaged water industry.

   Not just bottlers are involved. In south India, thousands of fuel trucks converted to be water carriers sell ground water to households  and  establishments at about $10 for 5,000 liters. More than 13,000 tankers carry water drawn from farmland surrounding Chennai, according a social  activist R Srinivasan. He estimates a $148 million tanker industry is cashing in on Chennai's acute water scarcity. The story is replicated across India, including in New Delhi.

  Plastic Bottles Pollution

   Tap water is a local product that needs no packaging. Globally, bottled water accounts for as many as 1.5 million tons of plastic waste annually, according to the Sierra Club. In addition, billions of bottles end up in the ground every year. Sadly, only 20% ever get recycled, according to the Container Recycling Institute. The other 80%? Besides landfills, many bottles end up in oceans, posing a risk to marine life and and our Planet from Plastic pollution. By purchasing bottled water, you’re indirectly raising the price of gasoline and contributing to Global Warming and climate change.
  In 2007, the manufacturers of plastic water bottles generated more than 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions and required the equivalent of more than 17 million barrels of oil, according to the Pacific Institute.  Americans drank more than 30 billion single-serving bottles of water last year. Yet the vast majority of us have an unlimited source of clean, EPA-regulated tap water flowing from our faucets.

      Water bottle cost

   High profit on Bottled water

  10% of bottled water samples fail test

  During 2010-11 and 2011-12,at least one in every 10 samples picked up for quality testing failed.The percentage of failing samples was higher in the Delhi- Noida region and Maharashtra and Goa combined. 
In a written reply in Lok Sabha last week, consumer affairs minister K V Thomas submitted details of samples collected from each state and Union Territory. During 2010-11, 6,648 samples of packaged drinking water were taken and 805 of them failed. Government agencies also issued 543 warning letters to manufactures for flouting norms. The data shows that at least 30 licences were cancelled.

   In Delhi and Noida, 23 of the 190 samples failed and two licences were cancelled. In Maharashtra and Goa, 104 of 729 samples failed.

   Plastic Bottles requires costly Oil 
  Making the plastic in the bottles requires 47 million gallons of oil annually. And that doesn’t include the jet fuel and gasoline required to transport the bottles- sometimes halfway around the world.

  The anti-bottling protests

   The anti-bottling protests in India  against Pepsi and   Coca-Cola  echo increased  concern in Europe and the United States over the  proliferation of bottled water, including the  creation of billions of soon unwanted plastic  containers. In India, protests against the  bottling plant in drought-prone Kala Dera near Jaipur  focus on the source of the packaged
 water and how  bottling companies are grabbing underground water.          
  The truth is, many water companies get their water from sources in developing countries, such as India and Fiji. In those places, the companies take water that once belonged to an entire village and buy it for themselves, forcing the villagers to pay for water that they used to be able to use as a community, free of charge.  

   On  February 25, 2011 the Indian state of Kerala has passed a bill allowing compensation claims against soft drink giant Coca-Cola over alleged environmental damage caused by a bottling plant. The legislation adopted by the state assembly on Thursday creates a tribunal empowered to process claims for alleged losses resulting from violations of environmental regulations. The Palakkad bottling factory in Kerala was closed in 2005 after protests from activists and residents. A high-level state panel concluded last year that the plant had caused environmental and soil degradation as well as water contamination, and recommended a fine of 47 million dollars. Coca-Cola denied all the allegations.

   Reports on April 18, 2013 that Coca-Cola plans to use surface water from Yamuna for its upcoming bottling plant near Dehradun have raised concern about power production from hydel projects on the river. "If water is taken by Coke from Yamuna at Vikasnagar, it will surely affect the power production of our five major hydel projects," said G P Patel, managing director of the state-run UJVN Ltd, which produces 475 Mw.

  Pro-tap water consciousness

   The London Evening Standard newspaper ran a "Water on Tap" campaign in April to have tap water available for drinking in city restaurants and bars. The tabloid reported getting support for its anti-packaged water campaign from the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the mayor's office, leading restaurants and chains such as Starbucks, Costa Coffee and McDonald's. Following growing pro-tap water consciousness, bottled water sales in Britain dipped 9% in the year to March 08.

   Alternatives to bottled water

   The demand for bottled water keeps growing despite the industry being fuel-consuming and highly polluting. A new Israeli company believes it has an alternative to this pressing environmental problem kiosks that dispense water as safe as the bottled variety without adding to the plastic menace. Woosh is a startup that uses a patent- pending, ozone-based disinfection system at its kiosks for killing microorganisms just before the water is dispensed.

   Aqua Express 25 5-gallon bottled water vending machine

   Two US-based water companies have teamed up with Nestlé Waters North America  and its Poland Spring Direct Division to pilot a new concept, the Aqua Express 25 5-gallon Pick Up & Go automated vending machine.

   Economists at the California-based Pacific Institute that estimated the $100 billion value of the global industry, ask why consumers are readily paying for bottled water typically costing a thousand times more per liter than high-quality municipal tap water. /p>

   "Are consumers willing to pay this price because they believe that bottled water is safer than tap water?" Pacific Institute experts ask. "Do they have a real taste preference for bottled water? Or is the convenience of the portable plastic bottle the major factor? Are they taken in by the images portrayed in commercials and on the bottles?"

   The study, conducted by the US-based Earth Policy Institute, says the global consumption of bottled water has grown by 57 per cent over the past five years, despite the fact that the product is often no healthier than tap water and costs up to 10,000 times more. Emily Arnold, the author of  report, says that the $100 billion spent each year on bottled water is nearly 7 times the sum invested in providing safe drinking water in developing countries.

  Bottled Water law in India

   The term "mineral water" is misleading because our laws do not stipulate the minimum mineral content level required for water to be labeled as such, Ahmedabad-based Consumer Education and Research Society (CERS), an independent non-profit institution with a sophisticated product-testing laboratory, recently carried out a detailed study on 13 major brands of bottled water available in the country. As many as 10 of the 13 brands had foreign floating objects in clear violation of norms found in the survey. The CERS study indicates that there is an urgent need to revise standards for bottled water.

  Health Issue-Purity of bottled water

   City water systems must issue “right to know” reports about what’s in the water. Bottlers successfully killed this requirement for bottled water. Up to 70% of bottled water is unregulated by the Food & Drug Administration.  Acceptance of the supposed purity of bottled water is being undermined in India by the government Health Department's warning of pesticides and contaminating organisms being present in some bottled products. 
The notion that commercial products taste better has also taken a knock from Decanter, a British magazine, which last December featured top wine tasters testing unmarked samples of water from 22 brands, along with tap water from utility company Thames Water and water from the Decanter office water cooler. 
   The Decanter panel ranked serviced tap water third in the list, above the world's leading brand, Evian (15th), and the world's most expensive bottled water 420 Volcanic (18th) and Bling H20 (22nd out of 24 brands tasted). 420 Volcanic sells at $99 a liter, and Bling H20 (in Swarovski crystal-studded bottles) at $79 a liter. Decanter editor Guy Woodward said the tasting test exposed the "outrageous" prices of mineral water.

  Coca-Cola and Pepsi are changing the recipes for their drinks to avoid being legally obliged to put a cancer warning label on the bottle. The new recipe for caramel colouring in the drinks has less4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) - a chemical which California has added to its list of carcinogens.
The change to the recipe has already been introduced in California but will be rolled out across the US. Coca-Cola says there is no health risk to justify the change.
  4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) 

4-Methylimidazole (Melanie Bottrill)
*Formed naturally in the heating and browning process
*Occurs in caramel colouring as well as some roasted and cooked foods
*Can be in some cleaning,photographic and agricultural chemicals, dyes and pharmaceuticals
* Exposure  through consumption or during manufacturing process. Source: California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment 

  Traditional Indian methods of cooling and purifying water

 Now people of India turning their backs on the country's ancient methods of cooling and purifying water. Stored in earthen pots, for instance, it is not only refreshingly cool and tasty but is said to become bacteria-free. Yet the common summer sight of water matkas (earthen pots) in public offices and spaces is giving way to upturned plastic drums dispensing packaged water.

    Rainwater is safe, doesn’t bring about adverse effects.

   For centuries people have thought rainwater as unsafe, but contrary to their beliefs, as per an Australian study, drinking of untreated rainwater is safe for human health. The study was conducted under the auspices of eminent researchers from Melbourne’s Monash University. The entire team took a look at 300 homes that used rainwater collected in water tanks as their primary drinking source.This endeavor has been described as a world first study that comes in the midst of growing criticism of bottled water. 

   Bottled water Manufacturing plant
   Bottled water Manufacturing plant

  New WHO guidelines for safer drinking water supply systems
  The World Health Organisation (WHO) has issued revised drinking water guidelines on July 26, 2011, urging governments to strengthen water quality management and asking water suppliers to improve their faulty service to consumers, in order to prevent often fatal water-borne diseases.

  New development in bottled water industry

   September 15, 2013: Jayalalithaa launches low-cost mineral water scheme

  August 25, 2013: MARKFED to launch ‘Sohna’ as mineral water brand

  June 24, 2013: Bisleri to venture into flavored water category
   June 23, 2013: Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa announced that state transport corporations will set up mineral water plants and sell bottled water at Rs10 per litre.
   May 15, 2013: Health Minister writes to food regulator on bottled water safety
   April 5, 2013: Bisleri launches digital campaign for 500 ml bottle
   March 30, 2013: Illegal bottled water units booming in Noida: At least 34 packaged drinking water units have been instructed by court to shut down their units for "exploiting" underground water and operating without permission of any of the competent authorities.
   March 19, 2013:TGBL has launched two brands Tata Gluco Plus and Tata Water Plus in select cities in India
   February 5, 2013: Danone wanted to launch water-based flavored restorative drink B’lue
   December 25, 2012: Mohan Meakin, maker of the world's largest-selling dark rum, Old Monk, plans  into mineral water with its brand, Golden Eagle.
   November 15, 2012:
Anand Shah’s Sarvajal came with the invention of the Water ATM
   October 19, 2012: Lady Gaga to launch water brand
   October 15, 2012:Amity scientists develop low cost, pocket friendly and re-usable water purifier using Silver Nano p
   October 12, 2012: The stock of Tata Global Beverages has appreciated 26 per cent in the last three weeks hitting a new high of Rs 163.30 today.
  September 16, 2012:
Coca-Cola to re-align India, SWA business unit operations
  August 27, 2012:
Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has notified 82 areas for regulation of ground water being used in the business of bottled water. In these areas, installation of new ground water abstraction structures is not permitted without prior specific approval of the Authority / Authorized officer.
  June 22, 2012: Thirty-two packaged water units seized in Karimnagar district for not possessing BIS certificates as part of the Food Safety and standards Act 2006.
  June 20, 2012:  Japanese conglomerate Suntory, known for its whiskies and beers, has picked up majority stake in a subsidiary of Mumbai-based NarangGroup to enter India's non-alcoholic beverage market.
  May 10, 2012: Spectators will be banned from taking bottles of water into the Olympic Park in case they are used to conceal so-called "liquid bombs".

   April 17, 2012: The Coca-Cola Company Reports First Quarter 2012- -Strong global volume growth of 5% in the quarter, with growth across every geographic operating group. North America volume grew 2% and international volume grew 6% in the quarter.

   Coca-Cola Company looking ahead for water
  Coca-Cola uses 309 billion liters of water annually to produce its beverages. That's about what Atlanta uses in
five months, according to the city's Department of Watershed Management. In 2008, the company said, Coca-Cola used 2.43 liters of water to produce an average one-liter beverage. One liter goes into the beverage itself, and 1.43 liters are used for manufacturing processes such as rinsing, cleaning and cooling. The company says its global system of about 1,000 bottling plants is on track to improve water efficiency by 20 percent between 2004 and 2012.

   India to Serve as Hub for Imported Alaskan Water
 
S2C Global Systems, based in San Antonio, Texas, has announced plans to export 12 billion gallons of water per year from the Blue Lake Reservoir in Sitka, Alaska, to a new, yet-to-be-built water hub on the west coast of India 
  The first shipment to the new hub in India — whose location remains undisclosed for security reasons — is at least 18 months away, Rod Bartlett, president and CEO of S2C Global, told India-West October 15, 2010.
The water hub will be built in the next six months, while custom-built water-transport tankers, costing about $75 million, will be built over the next 18 months. Existing oil tankers cannot be used because of potential contamination from leftover oil residues, he explained. The water will be packaged at the hub, and then distributed in India as well as several GCC – Gulf Cooperation Council – countries, including Saudi Arabia, Iraq and UAE.

  Bottled water full line : Video

 
 
 Beverage majors water footprints

 
With the growing demand for water  beverage majors are tracking their water footprints. Soft drink ones such as Coca-Cola, beer maker SABMiller or packaged water firm Bisleri, they are all  trying to cap and replenish the sources. SABMiller brewing is water-intensive.  

  Jonglei: Bottled water factory to open this month
  Jonglei Sudd Bottling limited, the only water producing factory in Bor, Jonglei State, South Sudan, has conducted a successful test on its water after spending ten months setting the business and will opened by the end of October. 

   Cola and Pepsi - India approach
 Coca-Cola and Pepsi are re-evaluating their approach to the Indian soft drinks market due to competition from established local rivals. In recent months, both companies have revived brands they had  discontinuedin order to better reflect local culture. 
 Coke has re-introduced Citra, a lime drink it scrapped in favour of Sprite, and Rim Zim, a reformulated masala soda currently being trialled in Delhi and Punjab. Pepsi, meanwhile, has resuscitated 100-year-old Mumbai brand Duke's with three new flavours, and is piloting 7UP masala nimbu soda

       

   

    

 

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