Indians currently spending about $330m a year on bottled water, analysts
estimate. The packaged water market constitutes 15 per cent of the overall packaged beverage industry, which has annual sales of at least
$2.6bn, Deepak Jolly, a spokesperson for Coca-Cola India said. Naveen Luthra, CEO, Mulshi Springs
says," the bottled water market in India, selling an estimated million bottles a day, makes the natural bottled water market a mere 6% of the total
bottled water market in India. The natural bottled water market is growing at a phenomenal 40-50% a year".
Almost all the major international and national brands water bottles are available in Indian market right from the malls to railway stations,
bus stations, grocery stores and even at panwala's shop. Before few years bottle water. was considered as the rich people's choice, but now it is penetrated even in rural areas. The growth and status of Indian Bottled Industry
in comparison with Western or Asian market, India is far behind in terms of quantum, infrastructure, professionalism and standards implementation. The per capita consumption of mineral
water in India is a mere 0.5-liter compared to 111 liter in Europe and 45-liter in USA. Also As per UN study conducted in 122 countries, in connection with water quality,
APJ Abdul Kalam Ex-President of India has urged youngsters
on July 17, 2010 to be aware of water conservation techniques to avoid grave water crisis in future. `"It is so sad that today, people are forced to buy water in
plastic bottles. I am told that bottled water industry is worth nearly 10000 crore rupees and even big companies like the Coke and Pepsi are
involved in this bottling of water and making money. So, it is imperative that we ought to save water," he added. Do not be surprise if today's bottles water industry becomes next Oil industry by 2025.
If oil is the focal point of world conflict now, it is possible that water will be the next battleground among monopoly capitalists and even
among nations. Prices of water and water services keep on increasing because most of our puPepsiCo's first premium water to make appearanceblic water utilities have already been privatized by the government.
Private beverage and water companies have been granted by the government with permits to practically control and operate our natural springs and
water sources in natural parks and protected areas for water production and processing plants.
The bottled water category is growing at a rapid pace. The branded`market is 40 % of the category and non- branded contributes to 60% of the market. The category is growing at a rate of 30%. Bisleri is the
market leader in mineral water in India with a 60% market share within organized mineral water category. Three key players mainly dominate the Indian Bottled Water Market Parle Bisleri, Coca Cola India Inc Kinley and Pepsico India Holdings
Pvt. Limited. This market is expected to grow at a 30% rate in the next 7 years. In 2010 the revenue generated by this market was over $250 million.
Water and Coca-Cola
April 23, 2015: Coca-Cola plant's permit cancelled in Tamil Nadu
Tap water in Kolkata may soon meet BIS norms
Kolkata, May 17, 2015: The water that flows off your tap may soon have to meet quality
norms set by the Bureau of Indian Standards. At present, only bottled water is required to carry
mandatory BIS certification.
Development in bottled water industry
Backpackers around the globe are discovering a cheaper way to travel and stay healthy by using the Water- to- Go water filter bottle to drink water from free sources and be
protected from contaminants such as viruses, bacteria and water borne cysts.
The overall packaged bottled water in India is estimated to touch the Rs 10,000 croremark in the 2012-13 fiscal, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19%, says a
new report by Ikon Marketing Consultants. Presently, this market is estimated at Rs 8,000 crore, and could touch Rs15,000 crore by 2015, the report adds. While
Bisleri mineral Water continues as the top brand with a 36% share among national
players, Coca-Cola's Kinley follows with 25% share, followed by Aquafina at 15%. Other smaller brands include Parle Agro's Bailley, Kingfisher and McDowells No. 1, according to the report.
The global bottled water market, which saw an increase of 40-45% over the past five years, is currently valued at close to US$ 85-90 billion, the report adds.
The domestic market is split between three sets of players -- national
brands with a pan India presence worth around Rs 4,000 crore, local brands manufactured by registered plants but restricted to regions estimated to have a combined turnover of Rs 2,400 crore and unorganised
local brands estimated at Rs 1,600 crore. The report estimates that there are over 2,500 brands in this category, of which over three-fourths are local.
The non-traditional category, or bulk packs, (with over 5 litre capacity) is growing rapidly, and has a current share of over 40% share.
"The rising trend of bulk water consumption in homes and institutional segments will pave the way for bulk water packs to acquire half of the total bottled water market within next four-five
years," the report adds. According to a national-level study, making bottled water is today a cottage industry in the country. Leave alone the metros,
where a bottled-water manufacturer can be found even in a one-room shop, in every medium and small city and even rural areas there are bottled water manufacturers.
While India ranks in the top 10 largest bottled water consumers in the world, its per capita per annum consumption of bottled water is estimated to be five litres which is
comparatively lower than the global average of 24 litres. Today it is one of India's fastest growing industrial sectors.
Between 1999 and 2004, the Indian bottled water market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25 per cent - the highest in the world. The total annual bottled
water consumption in India had tripled to 5 billion liters in 2004 from 1.5 billion liters in 1999. Global consumption of bottled water was nearing 200 billion liters in 2006.
The market leader is Bisleri International, which boasts a 40 per cent share. It is followed by Coca- Coca’s Kinley (around 25 per cent) and PepsiCo’s Aquafina (around 10 per cent).
The top players in bottled water industry in India are the major international giants like Coca cola, Pepsi, Nestle and noticeable presence of national players like Mount Everest,
Manikchand, Kingfisher, Mohan Meakins, SKN Breweries , Indian Railways so on. With increasing competition, this sector will register a robust growth in 2010, predict industry analysts.
To take on rivals in this sector, PepsiCo India is drawing up a fresh game plan which
includes, investment in capacity enhancement, packaging initiatives and below-the-line activities to pump up volumes in the over-crowded category.
Meanwhile, swadeshi major Parle Agro is extending the manufacturing facility for Bailley from 29 to 60 plants this year. While swadeshi
major Bisleri International is beefing up its distribution, manufacturing and marketing
operations, Coca-Cola India is sharpening its focus on packaging initiatives of Kinley to woo new consumes. In essence, the packaged water industry in India
will soon witness a major tussle between swadeshi and videshi players to gain market and mind share.
The western region accounts for 40 per cent of the market and the eastern region just 10. However, the bottling plants are concentrated in the southern region - of the approximately 1,200
bottling water plants in India, 600 are in Tamil Nadu. But a major problem is southern India, especially Tamil Nadu, is water starved.
Top multinational players such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have been trying for the past decade to capture the Indian bottled water market.
Today they have captured a significant portion of it. However, Parle Bisleri continues to hold 40 per cent of the market share. Kinley and
Aquafina are fast catching up, with Kinley holding 20-25 per cent of the market and Aquafina approximately 10 per cent. The rest, including the smaller players, have 20-25 % of the market share.
Mineral bottled water in India under the name 'Bisleri' was first introduced in Mumbai by Bisleri Ltd., a company of Italian origin in 1965. Mineral bottled water were in
glass bottles in two varieties - bubbly and still in 1965 This company was started by Signor Felice who first brought the idea of selling bottled water in India.
Aerated drinks, Packaged drinking water more expensive
Love guzzling Coca Cola or Pepsi during lunch or with Pizza? In Budget 2015, it will get
more expensive as the excise duty on aerated water has been increased from 17.5 percent to 18 percent in the budget. Packaged drinking water
will cost more now as well. We suggest you don't go anywhere in this summer without your own bottle of water.
PepsiCo. to set up largest beverage plant in India in Andhra
The first phase of the plant, with a capacity to handle 1.2 million litres per day, will be completed by the third or fourth quarter of FY15 at an investment of Rs450 crore.
The manufacturer of brands such as Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7Up, Mirinda (aerated drinks), Aquafina (bottled water), Tropicana (fruit juices),
Gatorade (sports drink), Lay’s (snacks) and Quaker (breakfast food), has 38 beverage bottling plants and three food plants in the country. PepsiCo’s top eight brands generate a business of about Rs.1,000 crore each.
Packaged drinking water project 'Rail Neer' to come at Sambhar Lake
20-litre water for Rs 6 by AMC
The proposal to set up a mineral water plant at Kotarpur with investment
The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation will soon set up a packaged drinking water plant in the city which will meet its
requirement. It also plans to sell 20 litre bottles of water at less than half the market price. The plant will have the capacity to generate 2,000 litres of natural
mineral water per hour, and 36 lakh litres per annum.
Parle bought over Bisleri (India) Ltd. In 1969 and started bottling Mineral water in glass bottles under the brand
name 'Bisleri'. Later Parle switched over to PVC non- returnable bottles and finally advanced to PET containers. Since 1995 Mr.Ramesh J. Chauhan has started expanding Bisleri
operations substantially and the turn over has multiplied more than 20 times over a period of 10 years and the average growth rate has been
around 40% over this period. Presently it have 8 plants and 11 franchisees all over India. Bisler command a 60% market share of the organized market.
Currently, Bailley has a national presence in 5 lakh retail outlets across the
country. “We plan to increase manufacturing plants for Bailley from 29 to 60, presently 40 plants are operational and few more will be ready for operations
over the next few months,” informed Nadia Chauhan, joint managing director of Parle Agro.
Bottled water is sold in a variety of packages: pouches and glasses, 330 ml bottles, 500 ml bottles,
one- litre bottles and even 20- to 50-litre bulk water packs. The formal bottled water business in India can
be divided broadly into three segments in terms of cost: premium natural mineral water, natural mineral water and packaged drinking water.
Premium natural mineral water includes brands such as Evian, San Pelligrino and Perrier, which are imported and priced between Rs.80 and Rs.110 a litre. Natural mineral water, with brands such as
Himalayan and Catch, is priced around Rs.20 a litre. Packaged drinking water, which is nothing but treated water, is
the biggest segment and includes brands such as Parle, Bisleri, Coca-Cola's Kinley and PepsiCo's Aquafina. They are priced in the range of Rs.10-12 a
litre. The FDA also classifies some bottled water according to its origin.
Artesian well water Water from a well that taps an aquifer--layers of porous rock,
sand and earth that contain water--which is under pressure from surrounding upper layers of rock or clay.
Mineral water. Water from an underground source that contains at least 250 parts per million total
dissolved solids. Minerals and trace elements must come from the source of the underground water. They cannot be added later.
Spring water Derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the earth's surface. Spring water must be
collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. If some external force is
used to collect the water through a borehole, the water must have
the same composition and quality as the water that naturally flows to the surface.
Well water. Water from a hole bored or drilled into the ground, which taps into an aquifer.
Tap Water Some bottled water also comes from municipal sources--in other words--the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled.
Daab water in bottles: Chief minister Mamata Banerjee's focus on small investors will soon see packaged coconut water in local
stores in 2013. The state food processing department is currently studying a state-of-the-art technique for packaging bottles of daab water. It will collaborate with the Indian Institute of Packaging to sell
coconut water and highlight that fact that one portion of coconut water is equivalent to three portions of water.
Millions of people, both in rural and urban India, suffer from inadequate or no tap water
supply. Even some parts of Mumbai, the country's financial capital, get a mere two hours of daily water supply.
The city's Virar suburb gets 45 minutes. So bottled water is much in demand by residents - even though the businesses profiting from the sales are thriving from access to public water sources.
Bottled water fills a void created by government failure to address basic services, Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute writes in its World Water report.
"In many parts of the world, tap water is not available or safe to drink," writes . "In these regions, the failure of governments
to provide basic water services has opened the door to private companies and vendors filling a critical need, albeit at a very high cost to consumers."
The institute reasons that governments should tap into spending on commercial water by consumers to secure funds to provide safe water at fraction of the cost.
Bottled water has been treated by distillation, reverse osmosis, or other suitable process and that meets the definition of "purified water". The bottled water treatments include:
* Distillation. In this process, water is turned into a vapor. Since minerals are too heavy to vaporize, they are left behind, and the vapors are condensed into water again.
Reverse osmosis. Water is forced through membranes to remove minerals in the water.
* Absolute 1 micron filtration. Water flows through filters that remove particles larger than one micron in size, such as
"Cryptosporidium", a parasitic protozoan.
* Ozonation. Bottlers of all types of waters typically use ozone
gas, an antimicrobial agent, to disinfect the water instead of chlorine, since chlorine can leave residual taste and odor to the water.
News on Water
Kerala Water Authority to bottle drinking water
With an aim to provide quality drinking water at an affordable price to the common man, the Kerala cabinet approved in principal a proposal of the Kerala Water Authority to set up a bottling plant.
Coca-cola's Dehradun plant
Atul Singh, Coca-Cola's India and South West Asia CEO and President has been promoted by the company as Deputy
President of the Pacific Group with effect from July 1. Singh would now be responsible for the Greater China Korea (GC&K) and
India and Southwest Asia (INSWA) Business Units.
Nestle Hosts First Wind Turbines at Bottled Water Plant
As part of Nestle Waters North America’s long-term renewable energy plan, Wind Energy
will power 30 percent of the entire bottled water facility.Nestle is celebrating its first wind energy project in the world with
the hosting of two wind turbines at its Nestle Waters North America (NWNA) bottling plant in Cabazon, Calif. The turbines will provide wind
power for 30 percent of the facility where the company produces its Arrowhead and Nestle Pure Life brand bottled waters.
6 more Rail Neer bottling plants
In the railway Budget 2013 on February 26, Railways to set up six more Rail Neer bottling plants
Coca-Cola introducing Dasani Drops
The Coca-Cola is introducing its Dasani Drops in
coming weeks, which can be squeezed into water for some on-the-spot fruity flavor. The drops are popular because they come in small, portable containers.
The bottled water industry has spent billions over the past decade to sell you on the idea that bottled water is better than tap water. Well the short answer is they are both unhealthy.
One of the most ironic parts of the bottled water tragedy is that the water bottling industry gets the water free, filters it, bottles it and sells it
back to us at 1,900% profit. The ironic part is that tap water is legislated to be 7.0 pH neutral. They first dump a TON of cholrine in
the water to kill off all the bad bacteria, this makes it highly acidic.
In India around 100 companies sell an
estimated 424 million litres of bottled water valued at around Rs 200 crore in the country annually.Most bottlers claim that their water is 100 per cent bacteria-free,
safe, tastier and healthier. But is the water in these bottles really safe to drink? Do they conform to international or national standards?
To find out, the Ahmedabad-based Consumer Education and Research Society (CERS), an independent non-profit institution with
a sophisticated product-testing laboratory, recently carried out a detailed study on 13 major brands of bottled water available in the country.
The national brands -- Bisleri (separate samples were taken from their units in Bangalore, Ghaziabad, Calcutta and Baroda) and Bailley (Mumbai and
Surat) -- were selected on the basis of their dominant position in the overall market. Bisil (Mehsana), Golden Eagle (Chennai), Aquaspa (Mumbai),Saiganga (Ahmednagar), Nirantar (Thane), Trupthi (Chennai) and Yes
(Nadiad) were included because of their regional popularity. To conform to international standards for such testing, 21 bottles of each brand were tested in the CERS laboratory
against "analytical" and "sensory" parameters as well as for "microbiological" contamination. To ensure fairness, the results were sent to the individual companies for their comments.
So how safe is bottled water? Not that safe, says the CERS survey. As many as 10 of the 13 brands had foreign floating objects in clear violation of norms.
Again during a surprise inspection by the health committee chairman Manjunatha Reddy and team at two mineral water units in the Bangalore on January 11, 2011, it was
found that mineral water production unit owners were bottling borewell water. The units were also illegally using several branded labels on the
bottles to market the water. The standing committee visited a mineral water production unit called AM Enterprises and found the owner selling water without an ISI mark from the Bureau of India Standards.
He was found mixing mineral water with borewell water and selling it in cans to the public.
In water ATMs at Re 1 for 10 litres
A set of new ATMs near Bangalore has created a splash. For the
ATMs dispense not money, but pure drinking water, at Re 1 for 10 litres, in a project conceived by Congress MLA
Shivkumar in his Kanakapura constituency. I had campaigned with the slogan
If our PM and ministers can drink bottled water, why not the villagers?, said Shivkumar, referring to the chain of 20 water ATMs..
The kiosks resemble the Mother Dairy outlets. In Kanakapura, one gets 10 litres of water for every rupee coin dropped. “More such kiosks
are planned. Our aim is to have 33 within a short time,” said Shivkumar.
The majority of the bottling plants are dependent on groundwater. They create huge water stress in the areas where they operate because groundwater
is also the main source - in most places the only source - of drinking water in India.This has created huge conflict between the community and the bottling plants.
Private companies in India can siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the groundwater law in the country is archaic and not in tune
with the realities of modern capitalist societies. The existing law says that "the person who owns the land owns the groundwater beneath".
This means that, theoretically, a person can buy one square metre of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding areas and the law of land cannot object to it.
This law is the core of the conflict between the community and the companies as they are making the business of bottled water in the country highly lucrative.
Take for instance the case of Coca-Cola's bottling plant in drought-prone Kala Dera near Jaipur. Coca-Cola gets its water free except for a tiny
cess (for discharging the wastewater) it pays to the State Pollution Control Board - a little over Rs.5,000 a year during 2000-02
and Rs.24,246 in 2003. It extracts half a million litres of water every day - at a cost of 14 paise per 1,000 litres. So, a Rs.10 per litre Kinley water has a raw material cost of just 0.02-0.03 paise.
(It takes about two to three litres of groundwater to make one litre of bottled water.)
On April 7, more than 1,500 villagers defied a police cordon and marched to Coca-Cola's bottling plant in
Mehdiganj village, Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh state, demanding that the company immediately shut down its bottling plant.
In January, the New Delhi-based Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) advised Coca-Cola to shut a bottling plant in
the drought-stricken state of Rajasthan.
India's Ministry of Water Resources has ranked 80% of ground water resources in
Rajasthan as "over- exploited" and nearly 34% resources as "dark/ critical", the gravest ranking across the country
Invention of the Water ATM
Anand Shah Sarvajal is bringing clean water to India. Sarvajal came with the invention of the Water ATM, which enabled them to gain even deeper penetration into
decentralized rural communities. "You need three to four thousand people living in a village to make even our smallest filtration
machine viable," Shah explains. This ATM, a solar- powered, off-grid tank, regulated by a smart card.
You can put this ATM in a packet of maybe 50 households, deliver water there once a day, and they can come pick up water when they like it.
What is amazing is that people are prepared to pay Rs. 12 for a liter of water-in India especially when the cost of material
input (0.25 paisa per liter excluding labors cost) pales into insignificance before the price of the product.
Up to 40% of bottled water comes from the same source as tap water, but is sold back to consumers at hundreds of times the cost,
says the website of the North American "Think Outside the Bottle" campaign. Not only the Coca-Cola but there are thousands of brands in India's
$445 million packaged water industry.
Not just bottlers are involved. In south India, thousands of fuel trucks converted to be water carriers sell ground water to households
and establishments at about $10 for 5,000 liters. More than 13,000 tankers carry water drawn from farmland surrounding
Chennai, according a social activist R Srinivasan. He estimates a $148 million tanker industry is cashing in on Chennai's acute water scarcity.
The story is replicated across India, including in New Delhi.
Tap water is a local product that needs no packaging. Globally, bottled water accounts for as many as 1.5 million tons of plastic waste annually, according to
the Sierra Club. In addition, billions of bottles end up in the ground every year. Sadly, only
20% ever get recycled, according to the Container Recycling Institute. The other 80%? Besides landfills, many bottles end up in oceans, posing a risk to marine
life and and our Planet from Plastic pollution.
By purchasing bottled water, you’re indirectly raising the price of gasoline and contributing to Global Warming
and climate change.
In 2007, the manufacturers of plastic water bottles generated more than 2.5
million tons of carbon dioxide emissions and required the equivalent of more than 17 million barrels of oil, according to the Pacific Institute.
Americans drank more than 30 billion single-serving bottles of water last year.
Yet the vast majority of us have an unlimited source of clean, EPA-regulated tap water flowing from our faucets.
High profit on Bottled water
Plastic Bottles requires costly Oil
Making the plastic in the bottles requires 47 million gallons
of oil annually. And that doesn’t include the jet fuel and gasoline required to transport the bottles- sometimes halfway around the world.
The anti-bottling protests in India against Pepsi and Coca-Cola echo increased concern in
Europe and the United States over the proliferation of bottled water, including the creation of billions of soon unwanted
plastic containers. In India, protests against the bottling plant in drought-prone Kala Dera near Jaipur
focus on the source of the packaged
water and how bottling companies are grabbing underground water.
The truth is, many water companies get their water from sources in developing
countries, such as India and Fiji. In those places, the companies take water that once belonged to an entire village and buy it for themselves, forcing the
villagers to pay for water that they used to be able to use as a community, free of charge.
On February 25, 2011 the Indian state of Kerala has passed a bill allowing compensation claims against soft drink giant Coca-Cola over alleged environmental damage caused by a bottling plant.
The legislation adopted by the state assembly on Thursday creates a tribunal empowered to process claims for alleged losses resulting from
violations of environmental regulations. The Palakkad bottling factory in Kerala was closed in 2005 after protests from activists and residents. A high-level state panel concluded last year that the plant had caused
environmental and soil degradation as well as water contamination, and recommended a fine of 47 million dollars. Coca-Cola denied all the allegations.
Reports on April 18, 2013 that Coca-Cola plans to use surface water from Yamuna for its upcoming bottling plant near Dehradun have raised concern about power
production from hydel projects on the river. "If water is taken by Coke from Yamuna at Vikasnagar, it will surely
affect the power production of our five major hydel projects," said G P Patel, managing director of the state-run UJVN Ltd, which produces 475 Mw.
The London Evening Standard newspaper ran a "Water on Tap" campaign in April to have tap water available for drinking in city restaurants and bars.
The tabloid reported getting support for its anti-packaged water campaign from the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the mayor's office, leading restaurants and chains such as Starbucks,
Costa Coffee and McDonald's. Following growing pro-tap water consciousness, bottled water sales in Britain dipped 9% in the year to March 08.
Alternatives to bottled water
The demand for bottled water keeps growing despite the industry being fuel-consuming and highly polluting. A new Israeli
company believes it has an alternative to this pressing environmental problem kiosks that dispense water as safe as the bottled variety without adding to the plastic menace.
Woosh is a startup that uses a patent- pending, ozone-based disinfection system at its kiosks for killing microorganisms just before the water is dispensed.
Aqua Express 25 5-gallon bottled water vending machine
Two US-based water companies have teamed up with Nestlé Waters North America and its Poland Spring Direct Division to pilot a new concept, the Aqua Express 25 5-gallon Pick Up & Go automated vending machine.
Economists at the California-based Pacific Institute that estimated the $100 billion value of the global industry, ask why consumers are readily paying for
bottled water typically costing a thousand times more per liter than high-quality municipal tap water.
The study, conducted by the US-based Earth Policy Institute, says the global consumption of bottled water has grown by 57 per cent over the past five years, despite the fact that
the product is often no healthier than tap water and costs up to 10,000 times more. Emily Arnold, the author of
report, says that the $100 billion spent each year on bottled water is nearly 7 times the sum invested in providing safe drinking water in developing countries.
The term "mineral water" is misleading because our laws do not stipulate
the minimum mineral content level required for water to be labeled as such, Ahmedabad-based Consumer Education and Research Society
(CERS), an independent non-profit institution with a sophisticated product-testing laboratory, recently carried out a detailed study on 13
major brands of bottled water available in the country. As many as 10 of the 13 brands had foreign floating objects in clear
violation of norms found in the survey. The CERS study indicates that there is an urgent need to revise standards for bottled water.
City water systems must issue “right to know” reports about what’s in the water.
Bottlers successfully killed this requirement for bottled water. Up to 70% of bottled water is unregulated by the Food & Drug Administration.
Acceptance of the supposed purity of bottled water is being undermined in India by the government Health Department's warning of pesticides and
contaminating organisms being present in some bottled products.
The notion that commercial products taste better has also taken a knock from Decanter, a British
magazine, which last December featured top wine tasters testing unmarked samples of water from 22 brands, along with tap water from utility company Thames Water and water from the Decanter office water cooler.
The Decanter panel ranked serviced tap water third in the list, above the world's leading brand,
Evian (15th), and the world's most expensive bottled water 420 Volcanic (18th) and Bling H20 (22nd out of 24 brands tasted). 420 Volcanic sells
at $99 a liter, and Bling H20 (in Swarovski crystal-studded bottles) at $79 a liter. Decanter editor Guy Woodward said
the tasting test exposed the "outrageous" prices of mineral water.
4-Methylimidazole (Melanie Bottrill)
*Formed naturally in the heating and browning process
*Occurs in caramel colouring as well as some roasted and cooked foods
*Can be in some cleaning,photographic and agricultural chemicals, dyes and pharmaceuticals
* Exposure through consumption or during manufacturing process. Source: California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
New WHO guidelines for safer drinking water supply systems
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has issued revised drinking water guidelines on July 26, 2011, urging governments to strengthen water quality management
and asking water suppliers to improve their faulty service to consumers, in order to prevent often fatal water-borne diseases.
Traditional Indian methods of cooling and purifying water
Now people of India turning their backs on the country's ancient methods of cooling and purifying water. Stored in earthen pots, for instance, it is not only refreshingly cool and tasty but is said to
become bacteria-free. Yet the common summer sight of water matkas (earthen pots) in public offices and spaces is giving way to upturned plastic drums dispensing packaged water.
Rainwater is safe, does not bring about adverse effects.
For centuries people have thought rainwater as unsafe, but contrary to their beliefs, as per an Australian study, drinking of
untreated rainwater is safe for human health. The study was conducted under the auspices of eminent researchers from Melbournes
Monash University. The entire team took a look at 300 homes that used rainwater collected in water tanks as their primary drinking
source.This endeavor has been described as a world first study that comes in the midst of growing criticism of bottled water.
See the detailed report
Development in bottled water industry
Bottled water full line : Video
Beverage majors water footprints
With the growing demand for water
beverage majors are tracking their water footprints. Soft drink ones such as Coca-Cola, beer maker SABMiller or packaged water firm Bisleri, they are all
trying to cap and replenish the sources. SABMiller
brewing is water-intensive.
Bottled water Manufacturing plant