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Yamuna (यमुना) River    (Page 1)

Introduction of Yamuna
Source of Yamuna River
Yamuna River in plains
Pollution in Yamuna River
Yamuna action plan (YAP)
Tributaries of Yamuna
Yamuna in Hindu religion
Lesson from river Thames
Yamuna after immersed idols
Yamuna in Dehli
Yamuna in Agra
Yamuna no better than drain
Future of Yamuna?
Google map Yamuna

  Introduction of Yamuna

   Yamuna River near Agra

  River Yamuna, with a total length of around 1,370 kilometers (851 mi), is the largest tributary of the Ganges River Ganga in northern India. Yamuna is considered the most sacred among all the rivers as per Hindu mythology. Its source is at Yamunotri, in the Uttarakhand Himalaya   in the Himalayan Mountains. It flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, before merging with the Ganges at Allahabad. The cities of Delhi, Mathura and Agra lie on its banks.

 Originating in the Yamunotri glacier in the Himalayas, Yamuna covers a distance of over 1,300 km,  merging in the Ganga at Allahabad.

  Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially around Delhi,  the capital of India which dumps about 57% of its waste into the river. Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 million litres per day of sewage in the river. With the high density of growth in population and significant industrial advances, it is now one of the most polluted rivers in the world as per the 2014 UN report.

  Yamunotri is the source of the revered river Yamuna. It constitutes one of the four most important pilgrimages, collectively called Himalayan Char Dham of Uttarakhand.

  Source of Yamuna River

  The main stream of the river Yamuna originated from the Yamunotri glacier near Bandar Punch in the Mussorie range of lower Himalayas in the district of Uttar Kashi in Uttarakhand.  Some say the source of the river is the Saptarishi Kund, a glacial lake. There is a sacred shrine of Yamunotri or Yamnotri, near this source at an altitude of 3235 m. There is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Yamuna, which remains closed from November to May. At Hanumanchatti, the Hanuman Ganga merges with Yamuna river. According to a legend, this secluded hilly spot was the home of an ancient sage, Asit Muni.

   Temple of Goddess Yamuna

  Temple of Goddess Yamuna

  Yamuna River in plains

  The main stream of the river Yamuna originated from the Yamunotri glacier of Uttar Kashi in Uttarakhand. The Tons,  Chambal River and Giri rivers are the important tributaries of Yamuna and principal source of water in mountainous range. The river Yamuna traverse a route length of about 1200 km in the plain from Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh to the confluence with River Ganga at Allahabad. Yamuna River originally traverses south and then southeast and hence running parallel to and just west of the Ganga river.

The main tributaries joining in this reach include the Hindon from eastern bank and the Chambal, the Sind, Betwa and the Ken from south-western bank. The catchments of the Yamuna river system covers parts of the states of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the entire state of Delhi. Each one of these major tributaries in turn have its own tributary system.

The River Giri with its tributaries Ashwani and Kawal Khad and the Gambhar with its main tributary Baliana are the main rivers in the eastern and western part of the Solan district. The River Tons meets river Yamuna at Dakpathar in U.P. River Hindon originates from Upstream of Saharanpur in U.P. and meets River Yamuna downstream Delhi at Mazawali, Haryana.

Chambal River is most important tributaries occupying nearly half of the basin area of Yamuna. River Chambal originates from Bar Nagar (M.P.) and joins River Yamuna after Udi (U.P.) at Juhikha (U.P.). From its origin onwards tributaries, Khan and Kshipra join river Chambal before Nagada (M.P.). Another main tributary of River Chambal is Kalisindh which gets additional water from tributary Parwan at Kota  (Rajasthan).
  River Betwa originates from the upstream of Mandideep (Bhopal, M.P.) and joins River Yamuna at the down stream of Hamirpur (M.P.). River Mandakini and Ken are the last tributaries of river Yamuna before it joins river Ganga.


  Pollution in Yamuna River

   The Yamuna river passing through 22 km in Delhi was once described as the lifeline of the city, but today it has become one of the dirtiest rivers in the country. The reason:
* Delhi generates about 3,267 million litres per day (mld) of sewage while the city's installed waste water treatment capacity is only 2,330 mld. More than 937 mld of waste is not treated. Out of Delhi's 2,330 mld treatment capacity, 37 per cent is under-utilised and 1,270 mld of sewage is untreated and allowed to enter the river everyday.
* The Yamuna's 22-km stretch in Delhi is barely 2 per cent of the length of the river, but contributes over 70 per cent of the pollution load.
* Pollution levels in the Yamuna have risen. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 - from 117 tonnes per day (TPD) in 1980 to 276 TPD in 2005.
* Delhi discharges about 3,684 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage into the Yamuna.
* The faecal coliform count, which indicates the presence of disease causing micro- organisms, is nearly 25,000 times more than the limit prescribed for bathing.
* There are 17 drains entering Yamuna in Delhi and almost 3,500 million liter of waste water enters Yamuna everyday without any treatment.
* The Najafgarh drain contributes to 60%  of the total wastewater and 45 per cent of the total BOD load being discharged from Delhi into the Yamuna. The municipal wastewater has increased from 960 MLD in 1977 to 1,900 MLD in 1997.
* The capacity for treatment -increased from 450 MLD in 1977 to 1,270 MLD in 1997.
* A Central Pollution Control Board study on river water quality at the upstream of Wazirabad shows dissolved oxygen (DO) level at 7.5 mg/l and BOD level at 2.3 mg/l. 
* At downstream Okhla, the DO level declined to 1.3 mg/l with the BOD at 16 mg/l, indicating considerable deterioration in water quality due to discharge of sewage and industrial effluents.
* The coliform count at Wazirabad is 8,506/100 ml whereas at Okhla, it increases to 3,29,312/100 ml
 Sources: White Paper by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Centre for Science and Environment.

  The Supreme Court has been monitoring the cleaning of Yamuna
  On March 8, 2011 The Supreme Court sought to know the level of pollution in the river Yamuna and directed the Central Pollution Control Board to file a report within two weeks after examining the sample of its water.  On October 11, 2012  the Supreme Court has rapped the Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh governments and agencies that have undertaken the task of cleaning the river. Taking cognizance of a report by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) - which has pointed out that coliform (domestic sewage) level in the river was much higher than the permissible limit, the court said: "What has happened? Crores have gone. Where? It's a sad state of affairs. Nobody wants to own any responsibility."  Over Rs. 1,200 crore of taxpayers' money has been spent collectively by the Centre and three state governments to clean the Yamuna. 
  On December 19 , 2012 the Supreme Court  roped in experts from the Indian Institutes of Technology at Delhi and Roorkee to draw up plans for cleaning the polluted Yamuna river and slammed the Delhi Jal Board for its pathetic work.

  Study finds harmful insecticide in Yamuna water
  The study by the National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in association with the Ministry of Environment and Forest on July 8, 2013 has found high levels of Lindane widely used in mosquito repellents in the river.

  Yamuna action plan (YAP)

   To supplement the efforts of State Governments in addressing the problem of pollution of river Yamuna, Government of India is implementing Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) with assistance from Japan International Cooperation Agency, Government of Japan in a phased manner since 1993.
   Yamuna Action Plan (YAP -1):  YAP-I, which commenced in April, 1993 was completed in February 2003 at a total cost of Rs. 682 crore covering various pollution abatement works, including creation of Sewage Treatment capacity of 753.25 million litres per day (mld).
   Yamuna Action Plan (YAP -II):  YAP-II was approved in 2003 at an estimated cost of Rs. 624 crores with a completion period of 5 years. The major items of work in YAP -II such as rehabilitation of sewerage network and Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) and construction of new STPs.
  Yamuna Action Plan (YAP -III): Further, under YAP-III project for Delhi with an estimated cost of Rs.1656 crores has been approved in 2011. The above information was given by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment and Forests Shrimati Jayanthi Natarajan in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha on 21-August, 2012.
 The third phase of YAP initiated with an estimated cost of Rs. 1656 crore, works for rehabilitation of damaged trunk sewers, rehabilitation and modernization of sewage treatment plants and construction of new state of art plant is envisaged. The information was given by the Minister of State for Water Resources and Minority Affairs Shri Vincent H. Pala in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha on 30-August, 2012.


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