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Narmada River  ( Page 1)

  

Introduction
Source of Narmada River
Narmada River in plains
Dams on Narmada River
Narmada Bachao Andolan
History
Narmada in Hindu religion
Jal satyagraha
Economy
Ecology
Narmada river development
Tributaries of River Narmada
Environment Protection
Google map Narmada

Introduction

 Narmda river

   The Narmada ( नर्मदा) River is the only river in India that flows in a rift valley and flows in central India between North India and South India. Narmada river rising from Amarkantak hill in Madhya Pradesh state that runs from east to west  along with the Tapti River and the Mahi River. Narmada flows over a length of 1,312 km before draining through the Gulf of Cambey (Khambat) into the Arabian Sea, 30 km  west of Bharuch city of Gujarat. The Narmada River has a huge water resources potential for agriculture and economy of the region. More than 90% of water  flow occurs during the monsoon months of June to September. The Narmada river is considered extremely holy by the Hindus

   गंगे च यमुने चैव गोदावरि सरस्वति |
नर्मदे सिन्धुकाबेरि जलेऽस्मिऩ सन्निधिं कुरु ||

   The most sacred rivers of India are River Ganga (गंगा), River Yamuna (यमुना), Godavari ( गोदावरी) River , Sarswati, Narmada, Sindhu  and Kaveri, a dip in any of these rivers washes ones sins away.. 

   The dams on Narmada river benefits  the four Indian states Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan that  include provision for drinking water, power generation and irrigation facilities.



  Source of Narmada River

  The source of the Narmada is a small tank called Narmada Kund located on the Amarkantak hill, in the Anuppur District of eastern Madhya Pradesh. From the Amarkantak hill range the river descends at the Kapildhara falls over a cliff and meanders in the hills flowing through  the rocks and islands up to the ruined palace of Ramnagar.

   Amarkantak is 71 Kms. from Anupppur, an important railway junction of the South Eastern Central Railway. Amarkantak is at a distance of 320 Kms. from Jabalpur and 265 Kms. from Rewa by road and around 100 Kms. from Shahdol. The nearest railway station from Amarkantak is Pendra, which is 65 Kms. from Amarkantak. Pendra is in Bilaspur  of Chhatisgarh

  Narmada River in plains 

  The river rises on the summit of Amarkantak Hill in Madhya Pradesh state .It traverses the first 320 kilometres course around the Mandla Hills, which form the head of the Satpura Range; then moves towards Jabalpur passing through the `Marble Rocks`, it enters the Narmada Valley between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges, and moves westwards towards the Gulf of Cambay. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat, and finally meets the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch District of Gujarat. 
  Narmada River flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh 1,077 km , Maharashtra, 74 km, 35 km   border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and 39 km border between Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and in Gujarat 161 km .

   As the Narmada River flows further, municipal waste of 19 cities - Amarkantak and Dindori, Mandla, Bargi, Jabalpur, Gotegaon, Gadarwara, Pipariya, Narsinghpur, Babai, Hoshangabad, Kareli-Barmanghat, Harda, Badwaha, Badwani, Omkareshwar, Maheshwar and Mandeleshwar --is impacting the health of river. The urban administration and development department has identified 52 such cities in the downstream that have been discharging their municipal discharge directly.

   Dams on Narmada River

   Narmada River Map
 

   In 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity 30 large dams was planned on river Narmada.The major dams on Narmada river are : Sardar Sarovar Dam, Maheshwar Dam, Maan Dam,  Indira Sagar Dam, Bargi Dam and Goi Dam

   Of the 30 big dams proposed along the Narmada, Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) and Narmada Sagar Project (NSP) are the megadams. The Maheshwar and Omkareshwar dams along with SSP and NSP, are to form a complex which would ultimately cater to the needs of SSP.

   Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) is the largest multipurpose project involved in the construction, with a proposed height of 136.5 m, In February 1999, the Supreme Court of India gave the go ahead for the dam's height to be raised to 88 metres from the initial 80.  In March 2006, despite popular protest, the Supreme Court gave clearance for the height to be increased to 121.92 metres.


  Narmada Bachao Andolan

   Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a peoples  organisation that mobilised tribal people, adivasis, farmers,  environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river, Gujarat. The Andolan (campaign) includes hunger strikes and garnering support from noted film and art personalities together with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte.

   In 1985, after hearing about the Sardar Sarovar dam, Medha Patkar and her colleagues visited the project site and noticed the project work being shelved due to an order by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The reasons for this was cited as "non-fulfillment of basic environmental conditions and the lack of completion of crucial studies and plans". What she noticed was that the people who were going to be affected were given no information, but for the offer for rehabilitation.

   Medha Patkar approached the Ministry of Environment to seek clarifications. She realized, after seeking answers from the ministry, that the project was not sanctioned at all, and wondered as to how funds were even sanctioned by the World Bank. Patkar quit her studies and focus entirely on the Narmada activity. Thereafter, she organized a 36-day long, solidarity march among the neighboring states of the Narmada valley from Madhya Pradesh to the Sardar Sarovar dam.

   Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) in 1989, all other groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach. Medha Patkar advised also World Bank to their propaganda. Using the right to fasting, she undertook a 22 day fast that almost took her life. In 1991, her actions led to an unprecedented independent review by the World Bank. The Morse Commission, appointed in June 1991 at the recommendation of The World Bank conducted its first independent review of a World Bank project. Due to the review of World Bank the Indian Government pulling out of its loan agreement with the World Bank.

   In 1994, the Bachao Andolan office was attacked reportedly by a couple of political parties, where Patkar and other activists were physically assaulted and verbally abused. In protest, a few NBA activists and she began a fast and 20 days later, they were arrested and forcibly fed intravenously.Patkar led Narmada Bachao Andolan had filed a written petition with the Supreme Court of India seeking stoppage of construction on the Sardar Sarovar dam. The Supreme Court also deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. 

   The Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) on 27 July 2011 suffered a set-back after the Supreme Court rejected its plea for land for the landless displaced by construction of a dam for providing irrigation facilities to farmers in Khargone district in Madhya Pradesh. The NBA wanted dierction to the Madhya Pradesh government to allot two hectares of land to each of the ousted families as part of a relief andrehabilitation package for those affected by the Upper Veda Project on Veda river in the district.

  The apex court bench of Justice J.M. Panchal, Justice Deepak Verma and Justice B.S. Chauhan in their judgment said that it did not find any "cogent reason" in the demand for allotment of agricultural land to the landless oustees affected by the submergence of the dam affected area. The court said that "contention is devoid of merit".Speaking for the bench, Justice Chauhan said: "Neither it (land to landless oustees) had ever been contemplated nor it is compatible with the policy. Nor has such a land ever been allotted to this class of persons. The contention is hereby rejected."

  History

   The river has been mentioned by Ptolemy in the Second century AD as Namade. There are several references of Narmada in the Ramayana, the Mahabharat and Puranas. The Rewa Khand of Vayu Purana and the Rewa Khand of Skanda Purana are entirely devoted to the story of the birth and the importance of the river Narmada. Legends also mention that the Narmada River is older than the river Ganga.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Statue of Unity

  Bharuch to battle flood
On August 28, 2013 the administration in its rescue operation evacuated people from flood- affected villages to safer areas. Six people have lost their lives in the district due to floods.
In all the district administration has evacuated 17,134 people and 5,564 cattle to safer areas.
Meanwhile, water level in Sardar Sarovar dam came down on Monday, following reduction in discharge from Omkareshwar dam in Madhya Pradesh. On Monday evening, water level in the dam was recorded at 128.50 feet a reduction of 2.5 feet in the water level in 24 hours.

 Army, air force alerted after Narmada overflows danger mark 
   
 
On August 23, 23013 Army and air force have been pressed into service to speed up relief work in Hoshangabad district where heavy downpour has inundated
low lying areas of the town with Narmada river flowing 18-feet above the danger mark.  
  
Narmada project may raise Rs 700 cr in 2 years for dams

  Narmada Basin Project Company is planning to raise Rs 700 crore by the end of next fiscal. For this, the Narmada Valley Development Authority- floated company may go for raising money through infrastructure bonds or seeking loan from the World Bank or some other lending agency. The company may raise Rs 100 crore this fiscal and remaining Rs 600 crore the next financial year.
  Now, only 13 years are left for the state to utilise remaining 12.25 MAF. Seven major, 19 medium and 1,000 minor dams have been constructed so far as against the requirement of 29 major, 135 medium and 3,000 minor dams, said Rawat. The NVDA promises to irrigate 27 lakh hectare agricultural land against existing 3 lakh hectare.



    
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