The Godavari ( गोदावरी) River is the only river in India that flows
from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big
river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India after the Ganges
river. .It is also known as "Dakshin ganga (Southern Ganges)" or "Budi Ganga"
Godavari originates near Trimbak in Nashik District of Maharashtra
state and flows east across the Deccan Plateau into the Bay of Bengal near Narasapuram
in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. The Godavari river is considered extremely holy by the Hindus
गंगे च यमुने चैव गोदावरि सरस्वति |
नर्मदे सिन्धुकाबेरि जलेऽस्मिऩ सन्निधिं कुरु ||
The most sacred rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna,
Godavari, Sarswati, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri, a dip in any of these rivers washes ones sins away..
Like most other rivers, domestic pollution is the biggest polluter of
the river Godavari, accounting for 82 per cent of total pollution, whereas industrial pollution accounts for about 18 per cent.
The story of pollution in the Godavari river evolves around the tiny Nakavaggu rivulet, which joins the
Manjira, a tributary of the Godavari. The rivulet is dead and supports no life. Highly productive agricultural
land surrounds the rivulet. More than 150 small and medium industries and several large industries near the twin cities of Secunderabad and
Hyderabad release their effluents into the Nakavaggu rivulet.
However most of the blame lies with the 72 industries in the Patancheru Industrial area that have been dumping their effluents into the river.
Bereft of treatment facilities, industrial effluents are let out into streams that collect in ponds. This overflow later reaches the
Nakavaggu. A drain leading to Nakavaggu also carries effluents from
BHEL, Asian Paints, and Voltas industries. Industrial discharge from such industries has severely affected public
health, surface and ground water and agriculture in 22 villages in this area.
Necessary efforts were being made to pursue the centre to declare Polavaram Project on river
Godavari as National Project, said N.Kiran kumar Reddy ,Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh .While addressing
the public meeting at Tuni in east Goadavari district as a part of participating in Rachabanda programe on January 25, 2911.
Source of Godavari River
The source of the Godavari river s Trimbakeshwar,in the Nashik
Subdivision or District Of Maharashtra and flowing eastwardly across the Deccan Plateau through the state of Maharashtra.
Godavari River in plains
The Godavari River originating in the Western Ghats Trimbakeshwar in the Nashik
of Maharashtra and flowing eastwardly across the Deccan Plateau through the state of Maharashtra. It enters Andhra Pradesh at Kandhakurthi
in Nizamabad district , While passing through telangana region of Andhra Pradesh it touches a small village called
Dharmapuri, crossing the Deccan Plateau and then turns to flow in a southeast direction until it empties
into the Bay of Bengal through two mouths.`
There are several major towns and cities along the River Godavari. River
Godavari has been serving as the life giver and sanctifier for most of
the towns in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Major towns and cities along the river in Maharashtra are
Nashik, Trimbakeshwar (10th Jyotirliga of Lord Shiv), Kopargaon , Paithan (Ancient capital of Satvahan dynasty, Holy town),
Gangakhed, Nanded , Sironcha and Gevrai in District Beed
In Andhra Pradesh major towns and cities along the river are
Basara, Adilabad (Gnana Saraswati Temple), Nirmal, Tadpakala, Nizamabad (Armoor Toys) Cbattapur,
Nizamabad (Armoor Toys), Goodem gutta , Adilabad (Temple)cDharmapuri , Karimnagar (Narasimha Swamy Temple),
Kaleshwaram , Karimnagar (Kaleswara Mukhteswara swamy (Siva) Temple) Manthani , Karimnagar (Gautameshwara
Swami (Siva) Temple, Sri Rama, Sarswathi Temples) Mancherial , Adilabad Godavarikhani ,
Karimnagar EturiNagaram Bhadrachalam , Khammam , Rajamundry , East Godavari
Yanam ,Kovvur , West Godavari, Tallapudi , West Godavari Narsapur, West Godavari Antarvedi , East Godavari, Tadipudi , WestGodavari
Dams on Godavari River
There is a big dam built just after the source of the river at Trimbakeshwar . The dam is in the town of
Gangapur, which literally means a town on a river. The dam provides drinking water
to the residents of Nashik and also supplies water to the thermal power station situated downstream at Eklahara, which providespower to the town.
There is another multipurpose project on the Godavari River named Sriram Sagar Project on the borders of Adilabad and
Nizamabad District. It is in the town of Pochampad, 60 km away from
Nizamabad. It irrigates 4 districts of Northern Telangana Region of Andhra Pradesh and supplies power.
The Jayakwadi dam near Paithan is one of the largest earthen dam in India. This dam was built to address
the problem of drought in Marathwada region and problem of flood along
the bank of river. Two 'left' and 'right' canals provide the irrigation to fertile land up to Nanded district. This dam has major contribution
in industrial development of Aurangabad Maharashtra.
Near Rajamundry the largest city on the banks of
Godavari, there is a dam that provides water for irrigation. Below Rajahmundry, the river divides into two streams that
widen into a large river delta which has an extensive navigable irrigation-canal system, Dowleswaram Barrage
that links the region to the Krishna River delta to the southwest.
The Polavarm dam in Andhra Pradesh, to be built on the Godavari river, could now run up against a green hurdle
despite a conditional clearance by former Union environment and forests minister Jairam
Godavari cause gets national support
The issue of Godavari pollution dominated the fifth national water convention held at Jaipur, where Magsaysay award winner water
conservationist Rajendra Singh appealed to the participants to save the river on a priority basis.At the five-day convention in Bikampura last week, Singh urged the
representatives of various states to join hands and support the cause of the river Godavari in Nashik on the backdrop of the Kumbh Mela 2015.
Godavri river pollution: Nashik Municipal Corporation told to pay Rs 33L to NEERI
The Bombay High Court (HC) on July 26, 2013 directed the
NashikMunicipal Corporation (NMC) to pay Rs33 lakhto the National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) as the latter's consultation fee for its study report on curbing Godavaririver pollution.
The order was passed by the divisional bench of justices Abhay Oka and
Gautam Patel during the hearing of a public interest litigation (PIL) filed by an NGO, the Godavari
Gatarikaran Virodhi Manch, against the civic body for river pollution. The HC had appointed NEERI to provide consultation to the NMC to prevent
pollution of the river. As per institute's terms and conditions, 60% (Rs 48
lakh) of the total consultation fee of Rs 80 lakh was to be paid by
the NMC in three weeks. The municipal body had already paid Rs 15 lakh in May as per the directions of the HC. The remaining Rs 33 lakh is to
be paid in 3 weeks from now.
1986,citizens launched an awareness campaign against Godavari river
pollution. Dr Kishan Rao, a medical practitioner from Patancheru and
members of the Citizens Against Pollution (CAP) movement initiated
the campaign. Combined with the affected communities, they formed
the Patancheru Anti-Pollution Committee (PAPC) in 1986. Activists
staged dharnas, relay hunger strikes and demanded that the state
government end such pollution. Their protests also included a
Patancheru bandh and a 40-km long march to the state assembly, where
they presented a list of demands to the then chief minister, N T Rama Rao.
Their demands included that each industry construct an
effluent treatment plant (ETP); that industries ensure adequate
compensation for degraded agricultural land and that they supply
safe drinking water to the affected villages. Farmers from the
adjoining areas of Sultanpur, Gandigudem and Krishnareddypeta
organized a rally as part of an awareness campaign in the Bollaram
industrial area on August 18, 1986, blocking roads leading to the
industrial area. Three days later, the PAPC held a dharna in front
of the Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO) Rangareddy?s office. The
outcome was a promise to control pollution. Continuous pressure from
the PAPC forced the district administration to serve notice to 22
industries in the area.
The courts set a September 3, 1987 deadline to
industries to build individual ETPs. However, in the absence of any
substantial results after the due date, the PAPC announced its
second phase of public protests by organizing a "race against
pollution" on September 12, 1987. About 500 bullocks obstructed
the Hyderabad- Mumbai highway for over six hours. On October 9
that year, farmers filed a writ petition in the Andhra Pradesh High
Court against 20 of the 22 polluting industries. Lengthy legal
process started. In 1988, the government held a series of meetings
to discuss short- and long-term solutions. Though a common effluent
treatment plant (CETP) appeared to be acceptable to most industries,
some large industries claimed that they already had their own ETPs.
While talks flitted from discussion table to boardroom, 12 units
were served closure notice on May 7, 1989. After the industries
obtained a stay order from the court, farmers and activists
initiated another agitation -- a rasta roko at the Bollaram
industrial area, which
began on October 1990.
When a ruling by the division bench of the high court went in
favour of the industries, farmers approached the Supreme Court
through the eminent lawyer and Magsaysay award winner, M C Mehta.
The five-year long battle saw the apex court asking the Nagpur-based
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) to
conduct an exhaustive report on industrial pollution in the
Nakavaggu basin. While the NEERI report suggested compensation for
the farmers affected, the Supreme Court passed interim orders for
industries to immediately cease releasing effluents into water
bodies. The apex court observed that 56 industries were dumping
untreated effluents into the Isakavagu and Nakavaggu, polluting the
rivers. The court also sought provision of safe drinking water to
the affected persons by October 1998, restoration of cultivable land
by applying a suitable conditioner, that industries take remedial
action for 13 tanks by the year 2000, medical care to pollution
victims and sustained vigilance of industrial discharge.
The court order brought about some action. Piped safe
drinking water from metro water works was provided at a project cost
of Rs 5.5 crore. Monetary relief of Rs 2.13 crore has been paid to
the victims of pollution. However, pollution controlled measures
through CETPs is an unfinished task. Patancheru Enviro-Tech limited
(PETL), which isresponsible for monitoring and maintaining the CETPs,
is managed by the executive board of 156 Patancheru industries. But
only 80 of them send their pre-treated effluents to the three
The river has
been mentioned in the Purans and ancient scriptures. According
to a legend Sage Gautama lived on the Brahmagiri Hills at
Trayambakeshwar with his wife Ahalya. The rishi kept his stock of
rice in a granary. Once, a cow entered his granary and ate up the
rice. When the rishi tried to ward the cow away with Durbha grass,
it fell dead. The rishi wanted to relieve himself of the sin of ‘Gohatya’.
He worshipped Lord Shiva and requested him to bring the Ganges to
purify his hermitage. Lord Shiva pleased with the rishi appeared as
Triambaka and brought along the river Ganges. Since the Ganges was
brought down to Triambakeshwar by Sage Gautama, it is known here as
Gautami. It is also known as Godavari because the river helped Sage
Gautama to relieve his sins.
Godavari level rises in AP, 1,300 people shifted on July 21
Nashik Municipal Corporation fined for releasing sewage into Godavari
The Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has penalised the Nashik Municipal Corporation for polluting the Godavari river. The
MPCB's regional office has forfeited Rs1.25 lakh from the NMC's bank guarantee for various discrepancies in the operations related to sewage treatment plants.
Thousands of dead fish found floating in Godavari river
Thousands of dead fish were found floating in the Godavari river here, a local Congress corporator said on July 8, 2012, demanding an inquiry into
the incident. Corporator Vikrant Mate said the fish were found floating in the river near Asaram Bapu Ashram on Gangapur Road here.
"It should become clear whether the fish died due to chemicals and effluents, released into the Godavari river by industrial units or was
there any other reason behind this," he said.
Godavari in Hindu religion
The Godavari river is one of the most sacred holy rivers of India among
Ganga (गंगा) , Yamuna (यमुना) , Narmada ( नर्मदा} and
Kaveri. According to mythology, Godavari, the sister of river Ganga, emerged from the ata of Lord Shiva who was meditating on the mountain.
The place is hence considered holy and revered.Every Hindu believes that a dip in any of these five rivers washes their sins, The Godavari River
is sacred to Hindus and has several temples built on its banks. It has been held as a special place of pilgrimage for many thousands of years. Many famous
devotees including Baladeva (5000 years ago) and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (500 years ago) have visited here.
Godavari is considered the Dhakshin (Southern) Ganges and Rajahmundry Dhakshin Kasi. Every twelve years, Pushkaram fair is held on its banks
of the Godavari river.
Maha Shivaratri (महाशिवरात्रि)
was celebrated in Trimbakeshwar with religious fervor on February 20, 2012. Around two lakh devotees gathered in the small town of Trimbakeshwar at
the foothills of Brahamagiri mountain. The temple of Trimbakeshwar is known for its shivalinga, also revered as
one of the 12 jyotirlingas. Trimbakeshwar is the only temple, where the lingam is not cylindrical upwards but is inward like a bowl, which is
considered as the unison of Bramha, Vishnu विष्णु) and Shiva (शिव)
The banks of Godavari river has many pilgrimage sites.
* Trimbakeshwar, One of the twelve Jyotirlingas and ancient temple of Lord Shiva .
* Nashik - One of the four Sinhastha Kumbh Mela
* Paithan - Saint Eknath's native place, famous Jayakwadi dam , and a beautiful garden - Sant Dnyneshwar Udyan.
* Nanded - Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, One of the five most sacred places in Sikhism
* Basar - Sri Gyana Saraswati temple is situated on the banks of Godavari.
* Dharmapuri, Andhra Pradesh - Hindu Temple of Lord Narasimha
* Kaleshwaram - Sri Kaleswara Mukhteswara swamy Temple on Triveni sangamam of godavari and pranahita.
* Bhadrachalam - Hindu Temple of Lord Rama.
* Rajahmundry - Center for Telugu Literature.
* Pattiseema - A village where a Hindu temple is located on a small hill on an island in the river.
* Antarvedi - Laxmi Narasimha Swamy temple.
* Konaseema - Picturesque delta of Godavari.
The River Godavari is very important for the economically development of
this region. The river water is heavily used for agriculture, as it is the only available water source. Over half of the river basin (18.6 million ha), is categorized as
cultivable land. Most of the river’s water is drawn for irrigation purposes. Application of fertilizers is very high at 49.34 kg/hectares,
almost double the country’s average. However, the river's water has turned the
fertile soil toxic with heavy metals. The soil contains heavy metals like iron, nickel, zinc, copper, cobalt and cadmium.
The Coringa mangrove forests in the Godavari delta are the second
largest mangrove formation in the country. Part of this has been declared as the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, renowned for its reptiles.
They also provide an important habitat to a wide variety of fish and
crustaceans. These forests also act as barriers against cyclones, tropical stroms and tidal waves thus protecting the nearby villages.
The Krishna Godavari basin is one of the main nesting sites of the endangered Olive Ridley turtle.
Godavari river development
The Godavari river development are the policies and rules to keep the banks of the river clean and developed. The
Godavari River features huge resources and potential for the development of the region. The
Godavari river development was designed to keep the banks and water of the river clean and usable for resource needs.
Nearly a dozen projects were started in 2005 as part of Jalayagnam, but
till date, none has been completed in spite of pumping in huge sums. The government is likely to revise the existing action plan to ensure
early completion of irrigation projects based on the waters of the Godavari.
Film on Godavari about a true incident
Maranthen Mannithen is an upcoming bilingual, directed by Kumar Nagendra
starring Aadhi and Taapsee in the lead. The film is about a true incident that happened in 1980s on the banks of river Godavari, when an
unexpected flood killed 75,000 people in the area. Will the young lovers Adhi and Taapsee escape the tragedy is the film, says the director. “It
has some Titanic touch in it,” adds Kumar Nagendra.
The film also stars Lakshmi Manchu, Suja Varunee and Sundeep Kishan in
pivotal roles. Isaignani Ilayaraja will do the music and MR Palanikumaar wields the camera.
Colours of Godavari river black in Nashik
On August 1, 2012 the Godavari river suddenly turned black in colour and emitted bad odour, as the heavy rains from Sunday
onwards carried the sewage into the river. Whenever the rain water overflows in the river from its catchment area,
it is muddy in colour. On Tuesday, no water was released from the dam either, as the dam level is itself very low.
The stagnated water which flowed into the river from the catchment of Gangapur was a mixture of the sewage from the city and the effluents from the industrial area.
"The river is being polluted with the release of sewage and effluents from the city. It was all of the sewage that has been gathering in the
river over months," said Rajesh Pandit, member of the NGO Godavari Gatarikarn Virodhi Manch, who has been fighting a social and legal
battle to stop the pollution of Godavari. With rising pollution, the city is grossly falling short of sewage
treatment system. While the provision has been made, the system is not
yet ready. Thus the sewage is released into the river, untreated. Due to
this the river was covered with hyacinths in May and June. While cosmetic treatment of removing the hyacinths was applied, the cause
Tributaries of River Godavari
The tributaries of Godavari River are Pravara, Indravati , Wainganga , Wardha, Pench, Kanhan and Penuganga rivers, discharge an
enormous volume of water into the Godavari system. Its tributaries include Indravati, Manjira River, Bindusara River and Sabari River
Polavaram Project on river Godavari as National Project, said
N.Kiran Kumar reddy ,Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. This project was already in PM package and declaration as national
project would help to get ninety percent funds from the centre. The Technical Advisory Committee
and had approved the project and received environmental protection clearance. would be cleared soon , he added .
Residents of the Panchavati (Nasik) area are unhappy over the pollution in the Godavari River, including Ramkund,
Laxmankund and nearby areas. Situated on the banks of the river Godavari, Panchavati is one of the
oldest areas of the city and a centre of pilgrimage, as thousands of the tourists and devotees visit it daily. Hundreds of small and big ancient
temples are located in the area, one of the only four places in the country where the Kumbh Mela is held.
Encroachment around temples is another problem. Temples along the river
must be free of hawkers and permission to shops or hawkers should be given after proper planning, but this does not happen.
A vegetable market is set up on the river banks every Wednesday. In some places, vendors even sell meat on open spaces.
The Tourism and Finance Corporation of India (TFCI) has pointed out that the reasons for Godavari pollution
included the release of untreated sewage in the river by the Nashik Municipal Corporation, encroachments and the absence of cleanliness and
sanitation measures on the river bank. The survey was conducted recently
and the problem is only expected to worsen during the Kumbh mela, when lakhs of people will be bathing in the water.
Google map Godavari
The Nashik Municipal
Corporation (NMC) will construct three new bridges on the Godavari river in the city which will help in
decongestion of traffic on the roads connecting the two river banks.
As per the Kumbh mela plan of the NMC, the committee formed by the state
government and headed by chief secretary of the state Jayantkumar Bhantiya has made a provision of Rs 17 crore for the construction of the