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Ganga River (गगां)  Page 2

  

 Contents: 

Ganga River in plains
The Ganga at Varanasi
The Ganga at Allahabad
The Ganga at Patna
Ganga in Kolkata
Ganga delta and Ganga in sea
Tributaries of the Ganga River

  Ganga River in plains

 Ganga river at  Allahabad

  Ganga river after flowing from a cave at Gaumukh travels 1,560-mi (2,510-km) course in plains, Ganga flows southeast through the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. The Ganga passing  some of the most populous cities of India, including Kanpur , Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, and Kolkata. The Yamuna, which originates less than a hundred miles east of the Bhagirathi, flows parallel to the Ganga and a little to the south for most of its course before merging with the Ganga at the holy city of Allahabad, also known as Triveni Sangam. New Delhi, capital of India, and Agra, site of the Taj Mahal, are two of the major cities on the Yamuna river



The largest tributary to the Ganga is the Ghaghara, which meets it before Patna, in Bihar, bearing much of the Himalayan glacier melt from Northern Nepal. The Gandak, which comes from near Katmandu, is another big Himalayan tributary. Other important rivers that merge with the Ganga are the Son, which originates in the hills of Madhya Pradesh, the Gomti which flows past Lucknow, and then meets with the river Chambal.

   On its way it passes the towns of Mirzapur, Varanasi, Patna and Bhagalpur. At Bhagalpur, the river meanders past the Rajmahal Hills, and beings to change course southwards. At Pakaur, the river begins its first attrition with the branching away of its first distributary, the River Bhagirathi, which goes on to form the River Hooghly. Close to the border with Bangladesh, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 controls the flow of the Ganges, diverting some of the water into a feeder canal linking the Hooghly to keep it relatively silt free.

  After entering Bangladesh, the main branch of the Ganges is known as Padma River till it is joined by the Jamuna River the largest distributaries of the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, the Ganges is fed by the Meghna River, the second largest distributaries of the Brahmaputra (ब्रम्हपुत्र) River and takes on its name. Fanning out into the 350 km (220 mi) wide Ganges Delta, it empties out into the Bay of Bengal. The delta of the Ganga, or rather, that of the Hooghly River and the Padma, is a vast ragged swamp forest (42,000 sq km) called the Sundarbans world’s largest Ganga delta

 The Ganga at Varanasi

   Varanasi

  Varanasi (वाराणसी) also known as Benares or Kashi (काशी) situated on the banks of the River Ganga in  Uttar Pradesh, regarded as most holy place by Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains. It is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world, believed to be about 3,000 years old..Varanasi  is referred as the city of temples , the holy city of India , the religious capital of India , the city of lights and the city of learning. The importance of Varanasi  is closely associated with the River Ganga.and has many temples along its banks.

 Hindus believe that bathing in Ganga remits sins and that dying in Kashi ensures release of a persons soul from the cycle of its transmigrations. Varanasi is one of the holiest places in Buddhism too, being one of the four pilgrimage sites said to have been designated by Gautama Buddha

  More than 1,000,000 pilgrims visit the city each year. It has the holy shrine of Kashi Vishwanath (a manifestation of Lord Shiva), and also one of the twelve revered Jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva (शिव). Varanasi has nearly 100 ghats, most of them are bathing ghats, while others are used as cremation sites. Varanasi is famous by its  Jantar Mantar,  Archaeological museum, Bharat Kala Bhavan, The New Vishwanath Temple, Ganga Aarti at Dashashwamedh Ghat, Banaras Hindu University and Banarasi Silk.

 . A recent study by the Ganga Lab and River Ecosystem Environment Management and Training Centre at the Benaras Hindu University (BHU) has found that the quantity of (original) Ganga jal could in fact be less than 1 per cent in Varanasi

  The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II project which should have been completed by March this year in Varanasi, has so far attained only 12% progress. A sewage treatment plant (STP) of 140 MLD assisted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) under GAP-II has been proposed in Varanasi, and it was sanctioned in July 2010. It was expected that the project would be completed by March 2013. But, according to the record of the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), the progress status of the project as on June 30, 2013 is only 12%. One of the reasons for the delay is the unavailability of land.

 Another STP of 120 MLD to be implemented under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) is also in the process of beginning. It may be mentioned here that the World Bank approved a fund of one billion dollars to achieve the objective of Mission Clean Ganga.

  The Ganga at Allahabad

 Sangam at Allahabad the holy confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati revered by millions and the site for historic Mahakumbh held once every 12 years- seems to be under threat. In the Magh Mela, thousands are taking a dip into the Ganga to rid themselves of sins. But, the fact is that the river water has become toxic and unfit for bathing. The untreated water from various nullahs in the city is flowing into the Ganga, thus polluting the river water. Besides, the ever-increasing human settlements in Kachar (catchment area of river) area have added to the burden of the river. About 287 million litres of sewage flow into the Ganga in Allahabad only, 400 million litres of sewage in Kanpur and 300 million litres go into it in Varanasi.

  The Ganga at Patna

  In Patna, the Ganga was flowing above the danger mark on September 8, 2013 but the city was safe from flood. The toll in floods this year (2013) has gone up to 132. Over 5 million people were affected due to the floods in the Ganga and its tributaries  Sone, Budhi Gandak, Kosi and Gandak. The rivers are not showing receding trend so far as on September 8, 2013.

  Ganga in Kolkata

The main branch of the Ganga, the Padma, passes through the Farraka Barrage, a gigantic barrier designed to divert the Ganga waters into the Hooghly branch, and away from the Padma. Completed by the Indian government in the early 1970s, it was intended to help flush out the increasing silt deposits in the Hooghly, to improve navigation, and to provide Kolkata with irrigation and drinking water.

  About 150 large industrial plants are lined up on the banks of the Hooghly River around Kolkata. Together, these plants contribute 30 percent of the total industrial effluent reaching the mouths of the Ganga. Of this, half comes from pulp and paper industries, which discharge a dark brown, oxygen-craving slurry of bark and wood fiber, mercury and other heavy metals which accumulate in fish tissues, and chemical toxins like bleaches and dyes, which produce dioxin and other persistent compounds.

Holding the city's leather industry responsible for polluting the Ganges, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) on September 5, 2013 protested against the industry's release of toxic waste (from leather tanneries) straight into the river.

Ganga delta and Ganga in sea

  The delta of the Ganga, or rather, that of the Hooghly and the Padma, is a vast ragged swamp forest (42,000 sq km) called the Sundarbans the world’s largest delta  , home of the Royal Bengal Tiger. The river courses in the delta are broad and active, carrying a vast amount of water. On the seaward side of the delta are swamplands and tidal forests called Sunderbans which are protected conservation areas in both Indian and Bangladeshi law. The peat found in the delta is used for fertilizer and fuel. The water supply to the river depends on the rains brought by the monsoon winds from July to October and the melting snow from the Himalayas during the period from April to June. The delta also experiences strong cyclonic storms before and after the monsoon season which can be devastating.

  The delta used to be densely forested and inhabited by many wild animals. Today, however, it has become intensely cultivated to meet the needs of the growing population and many of the wild animals have disappeared. The Royal Bengal Tiger still lives in the Sunderbans and kills about 30 villagers every year. There remains high fish populations in the rivers which provides an important part of the inhabitants' diet. Bird life in the Ganges basin is also prolific.

Tributaries of the Ganga River

   The main tributaries of Ganga river in India are:
Yamuna River (यमुना) (Uttar Pradesh)
Tons river (Uttar Pradesh)
Ramganga (Uttar Pradesh)
Gomati (Uttar Pradesh)
Ghaghara (Uttar Pradesh)
Gandak (Bihar)
Burhi Gandak (Bihar)
Ghugri (Bihar)
Kosi (कोसी नदी)-The Sorrow of Bihar
Son (Bihar)
Mahananda River (West Bengal)
 In Bangladesh the Ganges is joined by Brahmaputra River 
The Alaknanda and Bhagirathi unite at Devaprayag to form the main stream known as Ganga. It flows from the mountains at Rishikesh and then flows onto the plain at Haridwar. The principal tributaries of Ganga river is Yamuna River which join the Ganges near Allahabad. The Tons river, which flows north from the Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh joins the Ganges just below Allahabad. The main tributaries in Uttar Pradesh are the Ramganga,the Gomati and Ghaghara

In Bihar its main tributaries from the Himalayan region to the north are the Gandak, the Burhi Gandak, the Ghugri, and the Kosi rivers and its important southern tributary is the Son. The river then skirts the Rajmahal Hills to the south and flows southeast to Farakka, at the apex of the delta. In West Bengal the Mahananda River joins it from the north. In Bangladesh the Ganges is joined by the mighty Brahmaputra (called the Jamuna in Bangladesh) near Goalundo Ghat. The combined stream, there called the Padma

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