Due to the diversified habitat, the wildlife in this arid region is very rich. Several rare species are found here and several of them are endemic
to the region. Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such
as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii), the Indian Wild Ass
and the Neelgai. They have evolved excellent survival strategies.
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer, spread over an area of 3162 km², is an
excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. Great Indian Bustard, Blackbuck, chinkara, desert fox, Bengal fox, wolf, desert
cat etc. can be easily seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert. It is an
ideal place for migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel,
vultures and Peacock (Peafowl) . In
Thar desert, the Desert Ship is Camel.
Many types of Eagles, Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels are found in
Wildlife Sanctuaries Talchaper in Churu District, This sanctuary is home to a large population
of graceful Blackbuck. Desert Fox and desert cat can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse
The plants in the desert have adopted various strategies to endure the intense heat, bitter cold and long dry spells. To reduce the water by
evaporation the leaves of these plants are reduced in size, as is the case of khejri (Prosopis cinerara).
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)(खेजडी) is the natural vegetation in Northern Desert. Other
natural trees found in Thar Desert are Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata
etc. Some species like kair (Cappairs dedicua) and phog (Calligonum polkygonides) do away with the leaves to minimize evaporation,
Small trees and shrubs found in Thar Desert are Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus
zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica,
Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua
The Israel babul (akesia tortlis) planted in Rajasthan to check the expansion of desert produces same disaster effect like
Vilayati babul(prosopis juliflora). It is found most harmful for the growth of local plants and grass. The better substitutes are the trees like
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) , Neem , Rohira, Peepal
Tree ,Sisam, Karonda (Carissa carandas) ,
Jojoba Plant , Jatropha curcas Plant
etc trees who are most suitable for Rajsthan's climate, soil and eco-system.
The Thar Desert region characterized by extremes of climate, erratic
rainfall, and high evapotranspiration and is subject to recurring droughts. The agriculture is mostly depend on the low rainfall. Only
24% of the cropped area is under irrigation by Indira Gandhi Cannel project and only half of the irrigation potential is being used.
The main crop of this region is Bajara, Moth, Mung, Guar, Till. In the area under irrigation wheat, Barley, Gram, Macca etc are produced,
Currently, the Thar desert area of Rajasthan is the main producers of Guar or cluster bean accounting 80% production of
the total world. The desert area of Rajasthan occupies the largest area (82.1%) under guar cultivation in the country. The most
important growing area are desert areas as Jodhpur , Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Sekhawat (Churu, Sikar , Jhunjunu), Nagoor. Now the most
valuable crop in this area is Guar and Guar Gum
Now Farmers are also farming Jojoba Plant in the desert area,
ASI unearths Artefacts dating to the Harappan era in desert Rajasthan in August 2013 in
Indus (Sindhu) River
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)(खेजडी)