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Rajasthani language

Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) language

   Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) is the widely spoken language in Rajasthan [राजस्थान] and the total number of speakers are 36 million as per Census of India, 2001 in Rajasthan. It is spoken by around 80 million persons in Rajasthan and other states of India and in some adjacent areas of Pakistan. The Rajasthani language is a part of the Central Indo-Aryan family, although some classify it as a Western Indo-Aryan language. The script of the Rajasthani language is Hindi and the four most important dialects are

   Marwari: The ancient name of Marwari is Maru. Nearly thirteen million speakers in western Rajasthan comprising Churu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Ajmer, Jodhpur, Pali, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Barmer districts of Rajasthan and also in eastern parts of upper Sindh province of Pakistan. Marwari Literature includes the specialty of Sanskrit, Prakrit , Apbransh.

   Bagri: Nearly five million speakers in Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar districts of Rajasthan, Sirsa and Hissar districts of Haryana, Firozepur and Muktsar districts of Punjab of India and Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar areas of Punjab of Pakistan. 

   Shekhawati:  Nearly  three million speakers in Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts of Rajasthan. 

   Dhundhari:  Dhundhari is spoken in Jaipur , Dausa , Tonk , Ajmer, Karauli and Sawai Madhopur by nearly nine million person. It was first surveyed upon by G. Macliester who published specimens of fifteen varieties of Dhundhari spoken in the territory of the former state of Jaipur in 1898

   Harauti:  The sublanguage of Dhundhari called Hadoati is spoken in Kota , Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar . It is equally influenced by Gujrati and Marwari and about four million speakers of this dilect.

   Mewari:  about five million speakers in Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan state of India.
Malvi:  Malvi is widely spoken in Malva region . Apart from Malva it is spoken in some parts of Mewar and MadhyaPradesh . It includes the specialities of Marwari and Malvi is very soothing and soft language . One special form of Malvi called Rangari is very famous in Rajputs of Malva.

   Mewati:  Mewati is widely spoken in North-West part of Alwar-Bharatpur and Gurgaon . It is highly influenced by Brig Language.

   Vagari:  It is widely spoken in southern part of Mewar. It is highly influenced by Gujarati .

  Features of Rajasthani

   Rajasthani was known previously through its various dialects but George Abraham Grierson (1908) was the first scholar who gave the designation ‘Rajasthani’ to the language.

   Rajasthani  is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida which is written from left to right. Besides, Muriya script was also in use for business purposes only.  Rajasthani has 10 vowels and 31 consonants. Three lexical tones: Low, Mid, High (Gusain 2000). Three implosives (b, d, g). Abundance of Front Open Vowel (e.g., jaavE, KhaavE..).

  Prominent Linguists

   Prominent  Linguists and their work for Rajasthani are :
 1892         : George Macalister: Dhundhari and Shekhawati
 1890-1920 : Ram Karan Asopa: Rajasthani and Marwari 
 1914-1916 : L. P. Tessitori: Rajasthani and Marwari
 1920         : George Abraham Grierson : Almost all the dialects of Rajasthani
 1948-1949 : Suniti Kumar Chatterjee: Rajasthani 
 1950-1970 : Sita Ram Lalas: Rajasthani language
 1960         : Narottam Das Swami: Rajasthani and Marwari
 1964         : K. C. Agrawal: Shekhawati
 1970         : John D. Smith: Rajasthani 
 1970         : J. C. Sharma: Gade lohar, Wagri or Bhili, Gojri
 1971-1989 : Kali Charan Bahl: Rajasthani 
 1976         : Christopher Shackle: Bagri and Saraiki
 1983         : David Magier: Marwari 
 1986         : Peter E. Hook: Rajasthani and Marwari 
 1990         : Lakhan Gusain: all the dialects of Rajasthani
 1990         : Liudmila Khokhlova: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1990-present 
 1993         : Anvita Abbi: Bagri  


  Status of Rajasthani 

   Sahitya Akademi, National Academy of Letters and University Grants Commission recognize it as a distinct language. It is also taught as such in the Universities of Jodhpur and Udaipur.The Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan included Rajasthani in the course of studies and it has been an optional subject since 1973. Since 1947, several movements have been going on in Rajasthan for its recognition, but it is still considered a ‘dialect’ of Hindi. Recently, the Rajasthan Government has recognized it as a state language, but still, there is a long way for Rajasthani language to go. 

   On August 8, 2010 Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram said in Parliament that presently demands for inclusion of 38 more languages including   Rajasthani  and Bhojpuri in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution were pending. The report of the committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Sitakant Mohapatra to evolve a set of objective criteria for inclusion of more languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India is under
consideration in consultation with the concerned departments of the Central Government.

   He added a decision on the pending demands for inclusion of languages in the Eighth Schedule including Rajasthani and  Bhojpuriwill be taken, inter-alia, in the light of the recommendations of the Committee and Government's decision thereon. No time frame can be fixed for consideration of the demands for inclusion of more languages in Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India". 

   UPA government will consider including Bhojpuri and Rajasthani languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution, but no time frame can be fixed for this, Minister of State for Home Ajay Maken said in the Lok Sabha on August 30, 2010.  A calling attention motion on the subject saw uproarious scenes in the Lok Sabha, with Samajwadi Party and the Rashtriya Janata Dal members rushing into the well of the house.
Raghuvansh Prasad (RJD) said Bhojpuri was spoken in 14 districts in UP, nine in Bihar and two in Madhya Pradesh, while Rajasthani had a distinct literature of its own.

   At present, 22 languages have been included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India. Of these, 14 languages were initially included in the Constitution. Sindhi language was included in 1967.Thereafter, three more languages viz., Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were included in the year 1992. Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santhali languages were added in the year 2004.

   "The basis for inclusion of these languages in the Eighth Schedule were the circumstances and demands of the people, existing at that point of time," Mr. Chidambaram said.

  Rajasthani Language Recognition Movement

   The Rajasthani Language Recognition Movement Committee (RLRMC) in first week of June 2011 staged a sit-in near the Rajiv Gandhi statue, Nai Sarak crossing, demanding the inclusion of Rajasthani in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and holding of Teachers Eligibility Test (TET) in that language. The media in-charge of the Rajasthan Association of North America (RANA), Prem Bhandari also took part in the dharna.

   Rajasthan Association of North America (RANA) has launched a campaign to get Rajasthani and Bhojpuri languages enlisted in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. To this end, Prem Bhandari, an NRI and member of RANA, has been in contact with parliamentarians, ministers, former ministers and public representatives. RANA has  again raised the issue of Rajasthani language being made a part of the Eighth Schedule, and has now decided to take the help of public representatives in the campaign.

   On September 8, 2011  All India Rajasthani Bhasha Manyata Sangharsh Samiti (AIRBMSS) has written a letter of thanks to President Pratibha Patil and Minister of State for Home Affairs for their positive response on the committee’s demand for Constitutional recognition of 'Rajasthani' language.

   A delegation of 15 representatives led by Rajya Sabha MP Abhishek Manu Singhvi and Prem Bhandari met the President at Rashtrapati Bhawan on Saturday. Singhvi is also the national president of AIRBMSS while Bhandari is global coordinator of AIRBMSS and media chairman of Rajasthan Association of North America. 

   Rajasthan Association of North America has also supported Rajasthani Bhasha Manyata Sangharsh Samiti’s demand. Home Minister for state Jitendra Singh has also supported the demand and held meeting yesterday with the representatives of Rajasthan House in this regard, said sources. 

   Meanwhile, Devi Singh Shekhawat, husband of President Pratibha Singh Patil, has also shown his solidarity with the demand saying he was "also a part of the delegation."   All India NRI Rajasthani Assembly president MLA Raj K Purohit, Vice Chancellor of JNVU Prof Bhanwarsingh Rajpurohit, VC of Bhagwan Bhagwati Varsity Prof Naresh Dadhichi were  present during the meeting including other eminent personalities from the state




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