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Minerals in Rajasthan

   Minerals in Rajasthan

 Rajasthan has the second largest mineral reserves in the country. Rajasthan produces 42 varieties of major minerals and 23 varieties of minor minerals. Presently, the State is the sole producer of jasper and wollastonite and a leading producer of cement and steel grade lime stone, soapstone, ball clay, calcite, felspar, natural gypsum, kaolin, rock phosphate, ochre and building stones besides, tungsten, lead-zinc concentrates, and copper metal. The following Table  shows the minerals found in Rajasthan which account for 70 percent or more of Indiaís total production.


   Wollastonite                                100 
  Jasper                                         100  
  Zinc concentrate                            99 
  Fluorite                                         96  
  Gypsum                                        93  
  Marble                                         90 
  Asbestos                                      89
  Soapstone                                    87
  Lead concentrate                         80 
  Phosphate roc                             75  
  Ball clay                                      71 
  Calcite                                        70 
  Sandstone                                   70 
  Flaggy limestone                          70 
  Felspar                                        70

 Rajasthan is the second largest producer of glass and ceramic raw materials and leading producer of feldspar.  It is the second largest producer of clay and second largest producer of silica. It is also  a store-house of 70% of the country's non-ferrous metallic minerals. It is producing 90% of the country's copper and zinc and the largest  copper smelter in the country are based in the State.

  The State has the largest number of small mining leases in the country. Presently 1324 mining leases of major minerals, 10851 mining leases of  minor minerals and 19251 quarry licenses  are in force. In terms of the total value of Indiaís mineral production in the country, the State contributes 5.74% of the total value and occupies the 5th position after Bihar (13.09%), Madhya Pradesh (9.68), Gujrat (8.55%), and Assam (7.3%). 

 The main minerals found in different parts of the state are


  Major deposits of barytes ores found in  district of Alwar and Udaipur. In Alwar it occurs in the area of Sainpuri, Zahir Ka kera, Ramsinghpura, Bhankhera, Karoli, Jamroli, Umrain, Girara, Dholera and a reserve of 75000 tones containing 95% BaSO4. In daipur district it is found near village Relpatliya where about 1 million tonne reserves containing 80 to 95% BaSO4.have been assessed by the department. In Rajsamand district baryte occurs in Delwara-Kesuli-Nathdwara belt where 41000 tones of baryte reserves containing 60-95% BaSO4 were estimated. In Bundi district it is found in Umar area where 1650 tones of byrates reserves containing 78.6% BaSO4 have been assessed. In Bhilwara district a reserve of 1600 tones of barytes containing 80-90% BaSO4 were estimated



  The main  deposits of calcite are found in the state are Maonda and Raipur in Sikar district (40,000 tones); Khila in Sirohi district (0.88 million tones); Dhinkali, Gayphal and Rabcha in Udaipur district 0.4 million tones and Dwarikpura and Nazar in Jaipur Dist. (51,000 tones).


 Rajasthan possesses ball clay, fire clay and china clay deposits, the known reserves of these clays are of the order of 38 million tones, 17.8 million tones and 208 million tones respectively. A reserve of 20 million tones of fire clay can be obtained from lignite areas of Bikaner districts. The important locations of clay deposits are Bikaner district (Nal, Kolayat, Kotri, Barsinghsar, Mudh, Gura, Chanli etc.), Pali district (Literiya, Khardiya etc.), Jaisalmer district (Devikot, Mandai etc.) Nagaur distt. (Mungva, Khajwana, Rol, Indawar etc.) Barmer district (Gunga, Kapurdi, Jalipa etc.), Bhilwara distt. (Mangrup, Kotri, Jahajpur etc.), Chittorgarh district (Eral, Sawa etc.) Jaipur district (Torda, Buchara, Fatehpur etc.) Sawai Madhupr district (Basu, Raesena etc.) Sikar district, (Mahawa, Purshottampura etc.), Ajmer district (Maliya, Lughiya etc.) Jodhpur district (Jewasiya, Ramasani-Rampura, Kheradiya etc.)


 The main dolomite deposits are Bajla-Kabra (Ajmer)having 13 million tones of all grade; Mandal, Koshithal (Bhilwara) having 20 & 28 million tones of all grade respectively. Chittoria - Gorla - Chandakheri (Chittorgarh) having 45 million tones with MgO 18 to 21%, and SiO2 0.6- 4%; Kotputli, Manwa-Ramgarh, Bhaislana  (Jaipur) having 31 Million tones all grade; Chicha, Chalota (Jaisalmer) 3.15 million tones all grade; Indo-Ki-Dhani, Indolai Ka Talab, Rathoro Ka Dhora (Jodhpur) having 5 million tones SMS grade; Daulatpura, Balpura (Sikar) having 1.95 million tones of all grade; and Iswal, Haldighati (Udaipur) having 2.55 million tones of all grade.


  The emerald belt of Rajasthan is extends for 185 kms. strike length from Gamgurha in Rajsamand district to Bubani in Ajmer district. The main ores are as are Rajgarh, Tikhi, Kalaguman. The occurrences are highly sporadic and variable.


  Ajmer district is the leading producer in the state having about 17 million tones estimated reserves of feldspar containing 11 to 14% K2O. The important occurrences are: Ajmer- Dadlia, Sander Sari, Loharwada, Berawa, Fatehgarh, Dantor, Lohargarh, Taragarh etc. Alwar- Talarpur-Khatrhal Pali- Chanodeya,  Pratapgarh, Dungar, Bera, Barentia , etc. ,Bhilwara- Mandal, Asind etc.,


  The important deposits of fluorite in Rajasthan are Mando Ki Pal and Kahila in Dungarpur distt where 0.7 million tones and 2.5 lacs tones of reserves with 17% and 20% CaF2 content respectively have been proved. In Karada, Jalore distt. 0.17 million tones reserves with 20 to 80% CaF2; in Chowkri-Chapoli, Sikar distt. 0.35 million tones reserves with 8 to 15% CaF2 have been estimated. 


 Garnet deposits are located in Udaipur, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Rajsamand and Tonk districts covering a strike length of 250 kms. Most important gem variety is found in Tonk district in a 11 km. long belt running from Kalyanpura to Rajmahal. 


  The total reserves of gypsum in the State are estimated at 1070 million tonnes The main localities are Bhadwasi (Nagaur) having 930 million tonnes with 80% CaSO4 2H2O; Mohangarh, Lakhakhedar, Nachana, Bhadra (Jaisalmer) having 12.4 million tonnes with 50 to 80% CaSO4 2H2O; Jamsar, Dhirera, Lunkanasar (Bikaner) having 20 million tonnes with 70-80% CaSO4 2H2O.


 It is found in Rajasthan in Lakhasar, Gussainsar, Bikaner, Kalu, Malkisar, Ganganagar areas in the form of polyhalite. About 739 million tonnes reserves estimated with 0.75 to 8% K below depth of 500 mts. 
Rock-Phosphate: Important deposit of rock-phosphate in the state are in Jhamar-Kotra (Udaipur) having 77 m.t . with 12 to 38% P2O5; Maton (Udaipur) having 9.20 million tonnes with 15 to 25% P2O5; Kanpur (Udaipur) having 5.83 million tonnes with 12 to 15% P2O5; Dakan Kotra (Udaipur) having 1.40 million tonnes with 12 to 20% P2O5; Dhol Ki Patti, Ekalingpura (Udaipur) having 3.85 million tonnes with 12 to 15% P2O5; Birmania (Jaisalmer) having 4.34 million tonnes with 12.91% P2O5; Achrol (Jaipur) having with 1.18 million tonnes 5 to 10 % P2O5; Sallopat (Banswara) having 1.00 million tonnes with 15 to 30% P2O5.


  Silica Sand:

 The important deposits of silica sand are Barodia (Bundi) having 1.16 million tonnes; Mudh, Gudha (Bikaner) with 3.0 million tonnes insulator, refractory and ceramic grade; Alampur,  Karoli and Jare (Sawai Madhopur) with 0.73 million tonnes of all grade; Kundi, Kanpur, Khimaz (Kota) having 5.33 million tonnes of all grade; Chabra (Baran) having 3 million tonnes all grade Lathi (Jaisalmer) having 7.5 million tonnes all grade. Jhir, Khori, Nimora (Jaipur) having 8.00 Million tonnes with 97.9% SiO2.

Siliceous Earth:

  Siliceous Earth is found in Bariyara, Mati Ka Gol, Mandai, Sajit, Babrasar, Dharvi Khurd in Barmer and Jaisalmer dist. having 10.000 million tonnes reserves with 80% SiO2.
Soapstone:  The main deposits are located at the following places of the State: Udaipur district:  Undithal, Coda, Depura, Gogunda, Gorach, Padla, Parsola, Bhungabhatt, Bharkundi, Sanjela, Negdiya, Rabcha, Kagmadar, Jadol, Usang, Natahara Ki Pal, Kherawar etc.  Dungarpur district: Deval, Balwara, Peeth, Simalwara, Panchpura, Amjera etc. Dausa district: Dagotar, Geejgarh etc. Bhilwara district: Ghevaria, Chainpura, Bhagwasa etc. awai Madhopur district: Dholita, Dhawan, Kamalpura, Ghari, etc.


  Extensive deposit of wollastonite is located near village Khila and Khera-Uparla in Pali, Sirohi and Udaipur district where 56 million tonnes of reserves have been estimated. Low grade Wollastonite was also found near village Gola ali pura, Rupnagar in  Ajmer Dist. having 1.66 M.t preserves with 30% CaSiO3


  Rajasthan is richly endowed with large deposits of different varieties of granite spread over in 23 districts of the State. More than 200 localities of granite have been identified so far. The districts where granites are are found  are Ajmer, Banswara, Barmer, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Jaipur,  Dungarpur , Jalore, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur,  Palli, Rajasamand,  Sawaimadhopur, Sikar, Sirohi, Tonk, Udaipur. 


  Out of 32 districts of the state, 17 districts possesses deposits of marble in the form of either extensive or small deposits. The marble deposits are located in the following districts: 
Ajmer : Sursura, Narwar, Kali-Dungari, Torka, Ladpura, Roopnagar, Saradhana, Umaria, Sawar, Ganeshnagar, Ganeshpura, Poawariya, Kotra, Onkapura. 
Alwar : Jhiri, Rajgarh, Badampur, Kho, Baldevgarh, Moti-Dungari, Thanagazi. 
Banswara : Vithaldev, Tripurasundari, Kotaria, Khema Talai, Bhanwaria Talai, Bhanwaria, Oda-Bassi, Bhimkund. Bhilwara : Jahajpur, Mohangarh (Pagara to Jahajpur) Asind, banera, Shahpura. Bundi : Umar 
Chittorgarh : Mandal Deh. Dausa : Dogeta. 
Dungarpur : Sabla, Nandli-Dad, Aspur, Semalwara, Ovri, Mal, Surata.
Jaipur : Bhaislana, Kortputli, Andhi, Raisala, Nimla, Todi Ka Bas.
Jaisalmer : Moolsagar, Amarsagar, Abur, Narpia. Chipla 
Jodhpur : Pachori, Chandi, Au, Moriya, Indolai Ki Dhani, Munjasar.
Nagaur : Chosira, Dungari (pink), Kumari, Borawad, Makarana.
Pali : Bar-Sendra, Sarangwa, Sevari, Kundal, Dujera.
Rajsamand : Kotri, Amet, Agaria, Parvati, Morchana, Kelwa, Sapron Ka guda, Nijarana, Jhanjer, Arana, Morwad. 
Sirohi : Selwara, Iderla, Perwa-Serwa, Khandra, Deri, Morthalla, Ajari, Reodar.
Sikar : Kela-Dunagri (Maonda), Patan.
Udaipur: Babarmal (pink), Devimata (pink), Rikhabdev, (Green serpetine) Oden, Masaro Ki Obri (Green), Darauli (White), Paduna (White). 


  Rajasthan is the third largest producer of limestone in the country after Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. The State has an approximate share of 10% of total limestone reserves amounting to 9793 million tonnes of all grades.
 Steel Melting Shop (SMS) grade limestone is located in Jaisalmer district. Extensive deposits of cement-grade limestone are located in the districts of Chittorgarh, Bundi, Banswara, Kota, Nagaur, Pali, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Bhilwara. Rich limestone deposits at Gotan in Rajasthan are best available in the country for white cement. High grade limestone and chemical grade limestone deposits are also found in abundance.
 Industries based on lime stone in the state are: Hydrated Lime, Calcium Carbide, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, Di-calcium Phosphatem, Calcium Hypochlorite, Quick Lime, Paper Coating pigments, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate etc.


  A large deposits of lignite more than 1,000 million tonnes  have been found in Bikaner, Nagaur and Barmer districts. Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Limited ( RSMML) , is one of the leading undertaking of the Rajasthan State Government. RSMML is a multi-mineral and multi-location Enterprise engaged in mining and marketing of Rock phosphate, SMS grade Limestone, and Gypsum & Selenite and Green Marble. It is a market leader in mining and selling of Rockphosphate and natural Gypsum across the country, and  also a global pioneer in technology both in open-cast mining and mineral beneficiation of Carbonate Rockphosphate. Rajasthan (India) Department of Mines and Geology (DMG):  It's main task is mineral exploration and administration for the state of Rajasthan, India. 

  Major uranium deposit found in Rajasthan

  On August 30, 2012 a large  deposits of uranium ore was found in Rajasthan according to  the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The deposit found at Rohil in Rajasthanís Sikar district is estimated at 5,185 tonnes, which makes it the fourth largest in the country after Tummalapalle, Chitrial and Peddagattu extension in Andhra Pradesh. The new site is close to the Rohil North region, which has already been found to have a deposit of about 381 tonnes.


  Marble, Granite, Kota stone, Dholpur stone, Soap stone, State stone, Schist,  Wollastonite, Zinc concentrate, Felspar, Mica and Semi-precious stones have the potential for export. Most of these minerals are being exported  today, but the quantities are comparatively small. 

   Mineral Policy:

  The Mineral Policy announced in the year 1977, Industrial Policy announced in the year 1990 and the New Industrial Policy announced in the year 1994 contains several measures as well as incentives for mineral sector which have been considered.


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