Nutrition in Honey
Preservation of Honey
Honey as food
Medicinal uses of honey
Purity of honey
Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honey bees , and derived from
the nectar of flowers. Raw Honey is an Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Viral, Anti- Fungal
substance and its unique composition makes it useful as an ant microbial
agent and antioxidant. Primarily honey has been used as an energy source, but recent research has
examined the use of honey as an ergogenic aid (a food or ingredient that helps
an athlete's performance) and wound healing agent, both of which were once considered merely age-old anecdotes.
Ayurveda a holistic system of medicine practiced in India for more than 5,000 years observes that
the use of honey not only for external application, but also as a medicine for treating various maladies,
a cosmetic, a vehicle for dispensing other medicines, a part of regular diet and even as a tonic.
The process of making honey begins when the bees feast
on flowers, collecting the flower nectar in their mouths. This nectar then mixes
with special enzymes in the bees saliva, an alchemical process that turns it
into honey. The bees carry the honey back to the hive, where they deposit it
into the cells of the hives walls. The fluttering of their wings provides the
necessary ventilation to reduce the honeys moisture content, making it ready for consumption.
In the hive there are three types of bee: the single queen bee, a seasonally variable number of drone bees to fertilize
new queens, and some 20,000 to 40,000 worker bees. The worker bees raise
larvae and collect the nectar that will become honey in the hive.
They go out, collect the sugar-rich flower nectar and return to the hive. In the hive the bees use their "honey stomachs" to ingest and
regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. It is then stored in the honeycomb
For harvesting honey a beekeeper first removes the frames from the hive. He remove bees from honey super
by smoking the hive, using a blower. Uncapping the cells by hand using an uncapping knife the honey is extracted and filtered. This filtered honey is stored in pots
Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honey bees, and derived from the nectar of
The bees feast on flowers, collecting the flower nectar in their mouths. This nectar then mixes
with special enzymes in the bees saliva, an alchemical process that turns it into honey.
Honey is stored in the
Types of Honey
1. Blended honey:Commercially available honey is blended, meaning that it is a mixture of
two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density or geographic origin.
2. Polyfloral honey: Polyfloral honey is derived from the nectar of many types of
3. Monofloral honey: Monofloral or varietal honeys are
collected in an area where the bees have access to only one type of flower,
such as "orange blossom", "sage", "eucalyptus", "tupelo", "manuka", "buckwheat", and
4. Honeydew honey: Honeydew lacks the protein-rich pollen
accompaniment gathered from flowers. Bees can take honeydew, the sweet secretions of aphids, instead of taking nectar.
5.Organic honey: Organic honey is honey produced, processed, and packaged in accordance with national regulations.
Spanish researchers looked at 36 varieties of Spanish honey in two groups: clover
honey, which bees make from the nectar of flower blossoms, and honeydew honey, made by bees from a sweet, sticky substance secreted by insects such as aphids that live off plants.
Nutrition in Honey
Honey is mainly carbohydrates as fructose (about 38.5%) and glucose (about 31.0%),
maltose, sucrose, and other complex carbohydrates. Honey contains trace amounts of several vitamins and minerals.
In honey the nutritional value per 100 g is Carbohydrates - 82.4 g, Fat- 0 g, Protein-0.3 g,
Water- 17.10 g, Riboflavin (Vitamin. B2)- 0 .038 mg 3%, Niacin (Vitamin. B3) - 0 .121 mg 1%, Pantothenic acid (B5) - 0 .068 mg 1%, Vitamin B6- 0 .024 mg2%, Folate
(Vitamin. B9)- 2 μg 1%, Vitamin C - 0.5 mg1%, Calcium - 6 mg1%, Iron - 0 .42 mg3%, Magnesium -
2 mg1% , Phosphorus - 4 mg1%, Potassium - 52 mg 1%, Sodium - 4 mg0%, Zinc- 0.22 mg2%.
Raw honey as it exists in the beehive or as obtained by extraction,
contains some pollen and may contain small particles of wax. It is purified by different process.
Filtered honey - Honey which has been passed through a mesh material to remove particulate material
without removing pollen.
Ultra filtered honey - Honey processed by very fine filtration under high pressure
and to 150-170 degrees temperature to remove all extraneous solids and pollen grains.
Ultra filtered honey is very clear and has a longer shelf life, but eliminates nutritionally valuable enzymes, such as diastase and invertase.
Heat-Treated honey - Heat-treatment after extraction reduces the moisture level and destroys yeast cells. Heating liquefies crystals in the
honey and reduces enzyme and also darken the natural honey color.
Ultrasonicated honey - Ultrasonication is a non-thermal processing alternative
for honey. When honey is exposed to ultrasonication, most of the yeast cells are destroyed.
Preservation of Honey
Honey can be preserved for decades, and even centuries and is easily assimilated even after long conservation.
A number of special prerequisites is, however, necessary to achieve the conservation periods of this order. These might include sealing the product in vessels of
chosen material, kept in a favorable environment of specific humidity,
temperature etc. By conventional preservation methods, it is not recommended to
preserve the honey for longer than 2 or 3 years. To preserve
for a long period, it is advisable to keep it in clean, hermetically sealed vessels. It is also advisable to keep it in darkened
vessels, or in dark store-places because in direct sunlight its lysozyme (antibacterial albuminous enzyme) is
destroyed. Optimal preservation temperature is +4-10°C. The store-place should be dark and dry,
preventing the honey from absorbing the moisture.
Honey should not be heated above 40°С lest to become toxic.
Honey gradually become toxic when preserved in metal containers, therefore it should be preserved in glass bottles.
Honey as food
In the time of the ancient Olympics, athletes were reported to eat special
foods, such as honey and dried figs, to enhance their sports performance.
Today the main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, as a spread on breads, and as an
addition to various beverages such as tea and as a sweetener in commercial
beverages such as Sprechers root beer. Honey is the main ingredient in the alcoholic beverage mead, which is also known
as "honey wine" or "honey beer"
Honey comes in a range of colors including white, amber, red, brown and almost
black. Its flavor and texture vary with the type of flower nectar from which it
was made. While the most commonly available honeys are made from clover,
alfalfa, heather and acacia flowers, honey can be made from a variety of different flowers, including thyme and lavender.
Medicinal uses of honey
Ayurveda, a holistic system of medicine practiced in India for more
than 5,000 years, which includes and emphasizes the use of body, mind, and spirit in disease prevention and treatment,
has long known that honey helps to dry secretions, decreases corrosiveness and promotes binding.
In Ayurveda there are hundreds of references to the use of honey not only for external application,
but also as a medicine for treating various maladies, a cosmetic, a vehicle for dispensing other medicines, a part of regular diet and even as a tonic.
Antibacterial properties: It has been reported from various clinical studies on the usage of honey as a dressing for infected wounds that the wounds become sterile in 3 - 6 days.
Honey used as a wound dressing has been reported to promote the formation of clean healthy granulation tissue allowing early grafting on a clean clear base
. It has also been reported to promote epithelialisation of the wound.
Due to its antibacterial properties, honey dries up wounds quickly and even decreases swelling or edema in the surrounding skin.
It also helps get rid of foul smell in wounds by rapidly decreasing dead, infected tissue and promotes the growth of healthy healing tissue.
Diabetic ulcers: Topical honey has been used successfully in a comprehensive treatment of
diabetic ulcers when the patient cannot use other topical antibiotics.
Coughs and Colds: Honey has also been used as a treatment for sore throats and coughs for
centuries and according to recent research may in fact be more effective than most common medicines, specially for children
.Reduces High Cholesterol: In a series of experiments involving healthy subjects and those with either high
cholesterol or type 2 diabetes, honey has proved itself the healthiest sweetener. It was observed that natural honey reduced total cholesterol 7%,
triglycerides 2%, C-reactive protein 7%, homocysteine 6% and blood sugar 6%, and increased HDL (good) cholesterol 2%.
Purity of honey
The purity of honey can be easily detected using different methods.
1. Aniline chloride test : Aniline chloride is first prepared and then used for testing. Three parts of aniline and one part of concentrated hydrochloric acid gives us aniline chloride.
Now a small ceramic vessel is taken and a small quantity of honey is placed in it. About 5-7 drops of aniline chloride is added to it and
stirred well. If the honey is adulterated a crimson red colour appears.
2. Test with Ether: Honey is taken in a test tube and equal quantity of water is added to it and stirred well. About 100 millilitres of this solution is taken and 5 ml of ether is added to it. This
mixture is kept aside for some time in order to get a fine solution after stirring. The ether layer settling on the top is transferred to another small flat bottom vessel. The ether gets
vaporized in a short while and to this resorcinol is added. This gives a red colour. This indicates that the honey has an adulterant.
3. Burning of Honey: A cotton wick dipped in pure honey when lighted with a matchstick burns and shows the purity of honey. If adulterated, the
presence of water will not allow the honey to burn, If it does, it will produce a cracking sound. Generally honey is adulterated by adding a syrup of jaggery.
4. Solubility in water: Pure honey does not dissolve in water but impure honey
dissolves. So to test it mix a spoon of honey in a cup of water and find out whether it dissolves to check its purity.
Simple observation: One of the nutrients (sugar) in pure honey precipitates when it is subjected to cool weather.
This precipitation gives an appearance of sugar crystals. The honey giving more sugar precipitates faster. Mostly this is mistaken for
adulteration. But if the precipitated honey is kept in hot water it attains normal liquid state which shows that it has no adulterant.
Honey has been used since ancient times both as a food and as a medicine.
For many centuries, honey was regarded as sacred due to its wonderfully
sweet properties as well as its rarity. It was used mainly in religious
ceremonies to pay tribute to the gods, as well as to embalm the deceased. Honey
was also used for a variety of medicinal and cosmetic purposes. For a long time
in history, its use in cooking was reserved only for the wealthy since it was so expensive that only they could afford it.
Honey in Religion: The Old Testament contains many references to honey. The book of Exodus famously
describes the Promised Land as a 'land flowing with milk and honey'.
In Jewish tradition, honey is a symbol for the new year Rosh Hashana. At the
traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten to
bring a sweet new year. Honey plays an important role in the festival of Madhu
Purnima, celebrated by Buddhists. In the Roman Empire, honey was used instead of gold to pay taxes.
In the accounts of the Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Seti I, one hundred pots of
honey were equivalent in value to an ass or an ox. Egyptian and Middle-Eastern peoples also used honey for embalming the dead.
In Hindu religion honey is used during worships and as a 'Panchamrat' in religious work.
CSEs Pollution Monitoring Laboratory tested 12 leading brands of honey
sold in Delhi, including those made by Indian companies such as
Dabur, Himalaya, Patanjali, Baidyanath and Khadi as well as by two foreign companies based in Switzerland and Australia. Scientists found high
levels of six harmful antibiotics in 11 samples, with only the Indian Hitkari brand coming out clean.
The contamination is the end result of a murky chain, which begins when
antibiotics are fed to bees to prevent disease, promote growth and increase honey production to meet commercial targets. When they make
their way into your daily spoonful of honey, these substances could damage the blood, kidneys, liver, bones and teeth. More importantly,
they create resistance in the body to prescribed antibiotics when you really do fall ill, says the CSE report.
Most developed countries have banned or strictly regulated antibiotics
in honey, and Indian companies must meet those standards when they export their products. However, in a stinging example of double
standards, most Indian companies are dumping their contaminated honey on the domestic market, since there are no regulations here, says the
CSE. Dabur Honey which has captured 75 per cent of the Indian market had the antibiotic Oxytetracycline at nine times the level that is permitted
for exported honey. It also had significant amounts of two other drugs completely banned for use in honey. If the sample was placed for export
to the U.S. or the European Union, it would have been rejected. Nectaflor Natural Blossom Honey, made by Narimpex of Switzerland, had
the largest number five of the six antibiotics that it was tested for, including the highest levels of ampicillin and erythromycin, both
of which are not permitted for beekeeping in any country.
It is clear that foreign companies are taking advantage of the lack of
regulations in India. After all, if our government does not care about the health of its people, why should these companies care? said CSE
director Sunita Narain, at the release of the study on September 14, 2010