What is Cancer
Types of Cancer
Causes of Cancer
Prevention of Cancer
Treatment of Cancer
New treatment of Cancer
Cancer is the most feared disease in the today.
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally: an stimated 7.6 million people died of cancer in 2005 and 84 million
people will die in the next 10 years if action is not taken. More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income
countries, where resources available for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer are limited or nonexistent. It is
estimated that over 40% of all cancer can be prevented.
in many cases are avoidable, or curable when detected early and treated according to best treatment. The main risk factors such as
tobacco use, junk food, declining consumption of fruit and vegetables, life style and obesity are contributing to the rise in
cancer rates, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Cancer may affect people at all ages, but risk increase with age.
Cancer is predominantly a disease of modern civilization and is largely due to the way we feed and treat our bodies and our wanton disregard
for the environment. Even the medical establishment agrees that cancer is almost totally preventable and that 80-90% of all cancers
have their origin in poor dietary practices, smoking or exposure to known carcinogens. The greatest single reason for the
devastating toll that cancer takes is ignorance. Ignorance about what cancer is and what causes it, ignorance about how it can be
prevented, and ignorance about options for treatment.
18, 2009 British scientists have unlocked the genetic codes of lung and skin cancers in a breakthrough expected to transform the way
cancers are diagonised and treated in future. The genetic maps show most mutations in lung cancer are traced to chemicals in
tobacco smoke and in malignant melanoma (skin cancer) to ultra violet light, confirming they are preventable.
What is Cancer
All organs of the body are made up of cells. Normally, cells divide to produce more cells only when the body needs them. This orderly
process helps keep us healthy. If cells keep dividing when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms. This mass of extra tissue,
called a growth or tumor, can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not cancer. They can usually be removed and, in most cases, they
do not come back. Most important, cells from benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.
Malignant tumors are cancer. Cancer cells can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs. Also, cancer cells can break away from a
malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. This is how cancer spreads from the original (primary) tumor to form
new tumors in other parts of the body. A few cancers, such as blood cancers (leukemia), do not form a tumor.
Cancer develops when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Although there are many
kinds of cancer, they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an
orderly fashion. During the early years of a person's life, normal cells divide more rapidly until the person becomes an adult. After
that, cells in most parts of the body divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells and to repair injuries.
Cancer is the Latin word for crab
A Cancer Cell
Cancer cells producing tumor
Because cancer cells continue to grow and divide, they are different from
normal cells. Instead of dying, they outlive normal cells and continue to form new abnormal cells. Cancer cells develop
because of damage to DNA. This substance is in every cell and directs all activities. Most of the time when DNA becomes damaged
the body is able to repair it. In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired. People can inherit damaged DNA, which accounts for
inherited cancers. More often, though, a person's DNA becomes damaged by exposure to something in the environment, like smoking.
Cancer usually forms as a tumor the abnormal growths: Neoplasia and neoplasm are the scientific designations for cancerous diseases.
This group contains a large number of different diseases. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Cancer is a widely used word that is
usually understood as synonymous with malignant neoplasm.
Some cancers, like leukemia, do not form tumors. Instead,
these cancer cells involve the blood and blood-forming organs and circulate through other tissues where they
grow. Often, cancer cells travel to other parts of the body where they begin to grow and replace normal tissue. This process is called
metastasis. Regardless of where a cancer may spread, however, it is always named for the place it began.
Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast cancer are very different diseases. They grow at
different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why
people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their particular kind of cancer.
Types of Cancer
Cancers are classified by the type of cell that resembles the tumor and, therefore, the tissue presumed to be the
origin of the tumor. The following general categories are usually accepted:
Carcinoma: malignant tumors derived from
epithelial cells. This group represent the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer.
Lymphoma and Leukemia: malignant tumors derived from blood and bone marrow cells
Sarcoma: malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or mesenchymal cells
Mesothelioma: tumors derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura.
Glioma: tumors derived from glia, the most common type of brain cell.
Germinoma: tumors derived from germ cells, normally found in the testicle and ovary
Choriocarcinoma: malignant tumors derived from the placenta.
The general classification of Cancer are:
1. Bladder Cancer 2, Breast Cancer 3. Brain Cancer
5 Colon and rectum Cancer 6. Endometrial Cancer
7. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer 8. Leukemia
9. Liver cancer
10. Lung cancer 11. Malignant melanoma
12. Prostate Cancer
13.Pancreas Cancer 14. Oral Caner 15.
16. Sarcoma 17. Skin Cancer (Non-melanoma) 18. Throat Cancer
19. Thyroid Cancer 20. All other cancers
Cancer cells continue
to grow and divide
is one of the most common cancers affecting women. A tumor that originates in the milk ducts may lead to Paget's disease of the
breast. Tumors may spread to other organs, such as the lungs or the liver, before being detected. The underlying cause of most is unclear.
However, some risk factors have been identified, many of which suggest that the female hormone estrogen is an important factor in the
development and progress of the disease. Possible risk factors include: High fat diet, excessive alcohol intake, estrogen replacement
therapy and oral contraceptive use. If a diagnosis of it is established, staging tests include: Liver function tests,
alkaline phosphates test to check for bone disease, chest X-ray (Radiography) and bone Scan.
Brain cancers are abnormal growths of cells
in the brain. Although such growths are popularly called brain tumors, not all brain tumors are cancer. Cancer is a term reserved for
malignant tumors. Some brain cancers occur when one type of cell transforms from its normal characteristics. Once transformed, the
cells grow and multiply in abnormal ways. As these abnormal cells grow, they become a mass, or tumor.
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which
malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin
pear lying on its side. The pancreas lies behind the stomach and in front of the spine. The digestive juices are produced by exocrine
pancreas cells and the hormones are produced by endocrine pancreas cells. About 95% of pancreatic cancers begin in exocrine cells.
Possible signs of pancreatic cancer include jaundice, pain, and weight loss. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect and diagnose early
because the signs of pancreatic cancer, when present, are like the signs of many other illnesses. Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed
with tests and procedures that produce pictures of the pancreas and the area around it. Pancreatic cancer can be controlled only if it is
found before it has spread, when it can be removed by surgery.
Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the
outer layer of the skin. A malignant growth is one that has the potential to cause death. Skin cancers are often divided into two
general groups: malignant melanomas and non-melanoma cancers. The outer layer of the skin (the epidermis) contains three kinds of cells.
Most of those cells are squamous cells. Cells near the bottom of the epidermis are called basal cells. And cells that provide pigment
(color) to the skin are known as melanocytes (pronounced MELL-uh-no-sites).
Each type of cell can become cancerous. The three types of skin cancers, therefore, are squamous cell cancer, basal cell cancer, and
malignant melanoma (cancer of the melanocytes). Malignant melanoma is by far the most serious form of skin cancer. Basal cell cancer is the
most common form of skin cancer. It accounts for about 75 percent of all skin cancers. Squamous cell cancer is the second most common type
of skin cancer. It grows more quickly than basal cell cancer, but less quickly than a melanoma. Exposure to sunlight is thought
to be the major cause of skin cancers.
Prostate cancer: In India, there is a lack of awareness among men and there should
be greater awareness of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test which should be done by all men over 50 years at least annually.
The PSA test is a screening process in detecting prostate cancer early and should be encouraged by all doctors.
Presently most prostate cancer patients in India are being treated through open surgery due to the high cost of laproscopic and surgery using a
Causes of Cancer
The major causes of cancer are a faulty diet, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic
chemicals and radiation. It is estimated that 60% of all cancers in men and 40% of all cancers in women are caused by a diet that is too
high in fat and proteins and too low in fruits, vegetables and fiber. Fats are believed to promote cancer rather than initiate it and animal
fats and hydrogenated fats are particularly detrimental. A high intake of protein has been associated with an increased risk of many types of
cancer and a high sugar intake significantly increases the risk of breast cancer. Smoked, pickled, salt-cured and barbecued foods are
also potent cancer initiators while alcohol is strongly implicated in
the promotion of already initiated cancer cells.
Smoking and the
exposure to second-hand smoke accounts for about 30% of all cancer deaths. Pesticides and other toxic chemicals are increasingly
implicated as cancer initiators. Asbestos has been strongly linked to lung cancer and benzene to leukemia and bone marrow cancers.
Chlorination of drinking water is another potent cause of cancer and is estimated to cause 15% of all cancers of the rectum and 9% of all
bladder cancers. Excessive exposure to solar radiation and electromagnetic fields can also lead to cancer. Although these causes
of cancer are many and varied they have one thing in common - they are almost all avoidable!
Cancer is a gene disorder of somatic tissue, in which damaged genes fail
to properly control cell proliferation. The cell division cycle is
regulated by a sophisticated group of proteins. Cancer results from the mutation of the genes encoding these proteins.
Cancer can be caused by chemicals that mutate DNA or in some instances by
viruses that circumvent the cell’s normal proliferation controls. Whatever the immediate cause, however, all cancers are characterized by
unrestrained growth and division. Cell division never stops in a cancerous line of cells. Cancer cells are virtually immortal—until the
body in which they reside dies. Cancer is unrestrained cell proliferation caused by damage to genes regulating the cell division cycle.
Many cancers originate from a viral infection; as viruses are
responsible for 15% of human cancers worldwide. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B
virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus. Experimental and epidemiological data imply a causative role for
viruses and they appear to be the second most important risk factor for cancer development in humans. The mode of virally-induced tumors
can be divided into two, acutely-transforming or slowly-transforming. In acutely transforming viruses, the viral particles carry a gene that
encodes for an overactive oncogene called viral-oncogene (v-onc),
and the infected cell is transformed as soon as v-onc is expressed. In contrast, in slowly-transforming viruses, the virus genome is
inserted, especially as viral genome insertion is an obligatory part of retroviruses, near a
proto-oncogene in the host genome. The slowly-transforming viruses
have very long tumor latency compared to acutely-transforming viruses, which already carry the viral-oncogene.
Vitamin A intake could cure cancer: Study
Intake of vitamin A in diet could help treat several forms of cancer due
to its ability to control the malignant cells, a new study has found.
Scientists have hailed the discovery as a “new dawn” in cancer treatment
after finding a link between malignant cells and lack of vitamin A. Experts at the University of York found that cancer cells are under
control of a derivative of the vitamin, known as retinoic acid, the ‘Daily Express’ reported.
They believe that vitamin A can be used as new anti-cancer treatment and
advised people to ensure they include adequate levels of the nutrient in
their diets. The study was carried out on prostate cancer cells but Professor Norman
Maitland of Yorkshire Cancer Research believes the treatment could apply to other cancers as well.
A simple blood test to detect lung and breast cancer
Now, a simple blood test to detect lung and breast cancer Washington: Scientists claimed to have developed a simple blood test
that can accurately detect the beginning stages of breast and lung cancer in just an hour.
Researchers from the Kansas State University developed the test that can
detect cancer even before symptoms like coughing and weight loss start.The test works by detecting increased
enzyme activity in the body. Iron
nanoparticles coated with amino acids and a dye are introduced to small
amounts of blood or urine from a patient. The amino acids and dye
interact with enzymes in the patient`s urine or blood sample.
Each type of cancer produces a specific enzyme pattern, or signature, that can be identified by doctors.
"These enzyme patterns can also help distinguish between cancer and an
infection or other diseases that commonly occur in the human body," researcher Stefan Bossmann said.
Prevention of Cancer
Prevention of cancer can be accomplished by avoiding
carcinogens or altering their metabolism, pursuing a lifestyle or diet
that modifies cancer-causing factors and/or medical intervention
Generally between 80-90% of all cancers are preventable; but it takes knowledge and
determination to act on this fact. The most important measures to
prevent cancer are to eat a healthy diet, avoid smoking and second-hand smoke, and avoid exposure to toxic chemicals and
radiation. Maintaining a strong immune system and an abundant supply of dietary antioxidants are equally important.
A healthy diet is one that contains an abundance of fresh,
preferably organically-grown fruits and vegetables. The daily diet should be rich in fiber and low in fat. Protein intake should be
moderate and red meat consumption should be limited. Sugar, alcohol, margarine and pickled,
smoked, salted, and barbecued foods should be avoided.
Getting daily exercise and avoiding excessive psychological stress
are also important preventive measures. Lack of physical activity has recently been implicated in the development of both breast and colon
cancer. A lack of sunlight has also been implicated in the development of breast and colon cancer, ovarian cancer, and osteoporosis. It is
important to get at least one half hour of unprotected sunlight every day and remember - sunscreens block the formation of vital vitamin D
and do not protect against melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
Antioxidants like vitamin-C and vitamin-E, beta-carotene, and
selenium are all recognized cancer fighters. They work by neutralizing the free radicals and toxins before they can initiate the gene
mutation which eventually leads to cancer. Numerous scientific studies have shown that many people have a low antioxidant intake and that
this vastly increases their risk of cancer. Other studies have shown
that supplementing with antioxidants can significantly lower the risk of developing many types of cancer.
A strong immune system is an essential defense against cancer. A healthy
diet will go a long way towards giving you a healthy immune system, but for optimum protection most progressive researchers recommend
supplementation with appropriate amounts of vitamins, minerals, and especially antioxidants.
Eating a healthy diet, taking the appropriate supplements, avoiding
smoking and alcohol, keeping your stress level low, getting lots of exercise, and staying far away from radiation and toxic chemicals you
can reduce your chances of developing cancer by 80-90%.
Most cancers are initially recognized
either by their signs or symptoms. Generally, cancer symptoms can be divided into three groups:
Local symptoms: unusual lumps or swelling (tumor), hemorrhage
(bleeding), pain and/or ulceration. Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice.
Symptoms of metastasis (spreading): enlarged lymph nodes, cough
and hemoptysis, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), bone pain, fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms.
Systemic symptoms: weight loss, poor appetite and cachexia
(wasting), excessive sweating (night sweats), anemia and specific
paraneoplastic phenomena, i.e. specific conditions that are due to an active cancer, such as
thrombosis or hormonal changes.
The common diagnosing methods are:
A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive
diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist. Tissue can be
obtained from a biopsy or surgery. The tissue diagnosis indicates the
type of cell that is proliferating, its histological grade and other
features of the tumor. Together, this information is useful to evaluate the prognosis of this patient and choose the best treatment.
Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry may provide information about
future behavior of the cancer (prognosis) and best treatment.
Cancer screening detect unsuspected cancers in the population. Screening tests suitable for large numbers of healthy people must be
relatively affordable, safe, noninvasive procedures with acceptably low rates of false positive results. If signs of cancer are detected,
more definitive and invasive follow up tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis. Screening for cancer can lead to earlier diagnosis
which may lead to extended life. A number of different screening tests have been developed. Breast cancer screening can be done by breast
self-examination. Screening by regular mammograms detects tumors even
earlier than self-examination, and many countries use it to systematically screen all middle-aged women. Colorectal cancer can be
detected through fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy, which reduces both colon cancer incidence and mortality, presumably through
the detection and removal of pre-malignant polyps. Cervical cytology testing leads to the identification and excision of precancerous
lesions. Prostate cancer can be screened for by a digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing.
Screening for cancer is controversial in cases when it is not yet known if the test actually saves lives. The controversy arises when it is
not clear if the benefits of screening outweigh the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests and cancer treatments.
Use of medical imaging to search for cancer in people without clear symptoms is similarly marred with problems. There is a significant
risk of detection of what has been recently called an incidentaloma -
a benign lesion that may be interpreted as a malignancy and be subjected to potentially dangerous investigations.
Canine cancer detection has shown promise, but is still in the early stages of research.
Treatment of Cancer
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy,
immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy or other methods. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and
the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient.
Surgery: Cancers can be cured if entirely removed by
surgery, but this is not always possible. When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, complete
surgical excision is usually impossible. Surgery can be quite effective when it comes to the removal of easily accessible,
relatively small, early stage, localized tumors as for instance in the
breast, colon, uterus or bladder. Some cases of stomach cancer also respond well to surgery. Surgery is no longer the only method for
treating melanoma and skin cancer as there are now very effective herbal-based ointments which will remove the tumors in a relatively
short time with no danger of metastasis. Surgery, of course, does not address at all the underlying cause of the cancer. So unless
appropriate lifestyle and dietary changes are made, the cancer is likely to recur. Surgery and even biopsies also carry the very real
danger of spreading the cancer to other organs in the body. The success rate for surgery can be improved by boosting the immune system
before the operation and by timing it right.
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer
with drugs that can destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy is the least valuable and most dangerous of all conventional
treatment modes. It uses a variety of highly toxic drugs to kill the cancer cells. Perhaps the greatest problem with chemotherapy is that
it seriously weakens the immune system just at the time when it is needed the most. Chemotherapy has been used with some success in the
treatment of Hodgkin's disease and certain lymphomas and leukemias.
However, chemotherapy is generally not useful in the treatment of the
most common cancers like breast, colon, and lung cancer. Some cancer
researchers are less charitable in their opinion of chemotherapy.
Professor Levin goes on to add that physicians "are coerced into using
it by special interest groups which have vested interests in the
profits of the drug industry." Drugs used in chemotherapy have devastating side effects and patients undergoing
chemotherapy, apart from being thoroughly miserable, frequently die of
pneumonia, common infections or other cancers.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy, X-ray therapy, or irradiation) is the use of ionizing
radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy uses high-intensity x-rays to prevent cancer cells from
reproducing; in the process it also kills off healthy cells, depresses
the immune system, causes very unpleasant side effects, and greatly increases
the risk of developing leukemia later on. Dr. John Cairns of the Harvard School of Public Health believes that "the majority of cancers
cannot be cured by radiation because the dose of x- rays required to kill all the cancer cells would also kill the patient." Early studies
at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center concluded that patients who received no radiation lived longer than those who were irradiated.
Radiation therapy can be useful in early Hodgkin's disease, and in treating localized tumors of the prostate, cervix, head, neck, and
larynx. In most other cases, it is of limited value and causes more harm than good.
Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is the use of immune mechanisms against tumors. These are used in various forms of cancer,
such as breast cancer and leukemia. The agents are monoclonal antibodies directed against proteins that are characteristic to the
cells of the cancer in question, or cytokines that modulate the immune system's response.
Chronic pain due to cancer is almost always associated with continuing tissue damage due to the disease process or the treatment (i.e.
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy). The failure of conventional medicine in coming to grips with cancer is
perhaps best illustrated by looking at lung cancer. Lung cancer is now the most common cause of death from cancer. Researchers at the National Cancer
Institute (NCI) admit that the current, conventional treatment of lung cancer is ineffective and state "The lack of improvement in survival
underscores the importance of lung cancer prevention and early diagnosis, because various therapeutic interventions have had
relatively little effect on lung cancer survival in the general population.
CyberKnife technology to treat cancer in India:
Now the most advanced CyberKnife robotic radio surgery system will
be available to cancer patients from third week of March 2009 at the Apollo Specialty Cancer hospital,
Chennai. The Apollo Hospital group has installed the most-advanced version of the system in Asia-Pacific at the cancer specialty centre in
Chennai. “The advanced technology behind CyberKnife uses real time image
guidance technology and computer controlled robotics to deliver an extremely precise dose of radiation to targets,
thereby avoiding the surrounding healthy tissue and adjusting for patient and tumour movement
during treatment,” explained John Rodenbeck Adler, professor of Neurosurgery and oncology at the Stanford University Medical
Centre. “The procedure requires no anaesthesia, as the treatment is painless and non-invasive,”said Adler.
Due to the poor results obtained with conventional therapies and the great harm they can cause, alternative therapies are gaining in
acceptance and popularity. These therapies are all based on assisting the body's own
defense systems in destroying the cancer cells. They use various methods to achieve this with most of them requiring a great deal of
commitment and determination on the part of the patient. As in the case of conventional
treatments, very few, if any, controlled experiments have been carried
out on the value of the various therapies, so testimony as to their effectiveness is not known.
The experiments found that terminal cancer patients who received large, daily doses of vitamin C along with their regular treatment lived much
longer than patients who did not receive vitamin C; they also had less pain and
in general, a much improved quality of life. Vitamin C has many
properties which makes it an excellent cancer fighter. It is a detoxifying agent, an antioxidant, and helps to produce antibodies. It
is also very important in preventing growing tumors from invading adjacent tissue. Dr. Hoffer of Victoria, Canada later expanded on the
Pauling/Cameron treatment protocol by adding large amounts of vitamin E, vitamin B-3, other B vitamins, beta-carotene, and some minerals.
Those of Dr. Hoffer's cancer patients who followed this regimen lived, on the average, about 16 times longer than those who did not.
In January 1994, Dr. Donald Lamm and his colleagues at the West Virginia University School of Medicine reported that daily megadose vitamin
therapy significantly lessens the risk of recurrence in bladder cancer patients. Patients who received the therapy, on the average, had less
than half the tumor recurrence rate than did patients who did not receive it. Dr. Lamm's vitamin combination included multivitamins (RDA
dosages) plus 40,000 IU vitamin A, 100 mg vitamin B-6, 2,000 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, and 90 mg zinc(32). The megadose vitamin
therapy, so far, has only been evaluated in combination with conventional cancer treatments.
Metabolic and herbal therapies aim at cleansing the body, boosting the immune system, and assisting the body in ridding itself of the cancer
and the toxins created by the breakdown of the tumor.
The Gerson therapy believed that cancer results from a faulty metabolism
and long-term exposure to pesticides and other environmental pollutants. His treatment involves a detoxification program and a
meat-free, salt-free, and low-fat diet along with copious quantities of fresh fruit and vegetable juices as well as various supplements.
The Gerson program is particularly effective for melanoma, lymphomas, and cancers of the liver, pancreas and colon.
Success has also been achieved with inoperable brain cancer, metastasized breast cancer, and prostate cancer.
The Hoxsey therapy was developed by a self-taught American healer, Harry Hoxsey. The Hoxsey therapy includes the total avoidance of pork,
vinegar, tomatoes, carbonated drinks, alcohol, bleached flour, and refined sugar. Various supplements are also given with the main
component of the treatment being the Hoxsey tonic which consists of several different herbs, many with potent anti-cancer effects.
Immune therapies are used in both conventional and alternative treatment
protocols. The Livingston Foundation Medical Center in San Diego
treats cancer patients with various individually-tailored vaccines, gamma globulin, and a vegetarian diet with vitamin and mineral
supplements. The Immunology Research Center in Freeport, Bahamas uses injections of immune substances to augment the body's own immune
system and claims good success with breast, colon, kidney, and bladder cancer. The Burzynski Research Institute in Houston, Texas uses
injections or supplements of peptides and amino acid derivatives occurring naturally in the body to augment the body's biochemical
defense system and reprogram cancer cells so that they revert to normal development.
Other alternative therapies are based on the use of specific formulations such as the Canadian herbal remedy Essiac which has been used with
apparent success since 1922. Shark cartilage has been found to be particularly effective against brain cancer and prostate, liver and
breast metastases. It works by interfering with the tumor's ability to create a vitally needed blood supply. Hydrazine sulfate is
particularly effective in combating cachexia, a deadly condition which causes many cancer patients to starve to death.
There are many highly respected alternative cancer therapies in use in Europe. The late Johanna Budwig, MD advocated a combination of sulfur-containing
protein and essential fatty acids to treat many types of cancer. Dr. Hans Nieper, MD in Hanover, Germany uses a vegetarian diet and
various combinations of vitamins, minerals, laetrile, and special vaccines. Traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine also have specific
treatments for many cancers; the ancient technique of Qi Gong has been found to be particularly effective.
February 28, 2010: Extracts of a fruit grown on tropical vines appears to have breast
cancer blocking powers, say researchers. Scientists found key ingredients of the green bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia called
Karela ) interfered with chemical pathways involved in cancer growth. It turned off signals telling the breast cancer cells to divide
and switched on signals encouraging them to commit suicide.
Experts told Cancer Research journal more trials were needed. Although promising as an anti-cancer agent, trials in animals and
then humans are still needed, study co-author Dr Rajesh Agarwal from the University of Colorado said.
Targeted therapy which first became available in the late 1990s has had a significant impact in the treatment of some types of cancer, and is
currently a very active research area. This constitutes the use of agents specific for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells. Small
molecules (such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and gefitinib) and monoclonal antibodies have proven to be a major step in
oncological treatment. Targeted therapy can also involve small peptidic structures as ´homing device´ which can bind to cell surface
receptors or affected extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor. Radionuclides which are attached to this peptides (e.g. RGDs)
eventually kill the cancer cell if the nuclide decays in the vicinity of the cell (vide supra Radiation therapy). Especially oligo- or
multimeris of these binding motifs are of great interest, since this can lead to enhanced tumor specificity and avidity.
Considerable research effort is now devoted to the development of vaccines and to potential venues for gene
therapy for individuals with genetic mutations or polymorphisms that put them at high risk of cancer.
The clinical trial findings from WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and
published in 'New England Journal of Medicine' (April 2, 2009) indicated that HPV DNA testing was the
most effective way to reduce incidence of cervical cancer compared to either Pap (cytology) testing or visual inspection with ascetic
acid (VIA).The study demonstrated that a single round of HPV testing was associated with a significant
reduction in the number of advanced cervical cancers and deaths from the disease.
It is general conception that cancer is a deadly disease. Progressive and disseminated malignant disease has a
substantial impact on a cancer patient's quality of life, and many cancer treatments may have severe side-effects. In the advanced stages
of cancer, many patients need extensive care, affecting family members
and friends. Government, NGOs and many local organizations offer a variety of practical and support services to
people with cancer. Counseling can also provide emotional support to cancer patients and help them better understand their illness.
New treatment of Cancer
TomoTherapy, a new way to treat cancer, has given a ray of hope to
the cancer patients. TomoTherapy is the most advanced form of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy with several advantages.
Tomotherapy combines precise 3-D imaging from computerised tomography (CT scanning) with highly targeted precise radiation beams.
With this machine, radiation oncologists can check the location of the patient’s tumour before each treatment.
They can then deliver painless and precise radiation therapy based on a carefully customised plan.