Q: What are the important Environmental Laws in the country?
Ans: Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Cess Act, 1977,
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and
Rules there under Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981,
National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997
Q. What are the different programes/activities implemented through State Pollution Control Board?
Ans: State Boards are implementing following programmes Pollution control in 17 categories of highly polluting industries Pollution control from industries discharging waste water into rivers
and lakes Inventorization of pollution industries in the State and ensuring their compliance to the Pollution control norms Restoration of environmental quality in critically polluted areas
Monitoring of water and ambient air quality in the States Hazardous waste Bio-medical and Management of Municipal Solid Wastes
Q. What steps have been taken to control vehicular pollution?
Ans: Major initiatives taken to control vehicular pollution include the following Emission Standards for Tractors : Emission norms for tractors were notified on 8.9.1999 under the Central Motor Vehicle Rules is effective from 1.10.1999.
India 2000 Emission Norms akin to Euro-I Norms: Emission norms known as India 2000 akin to Euro I norms was notified on 28.8.1997
under the Central Motor Vehicle Rules is effective from 1.4.2000 for the entire country, required major modifications in the engine designs.
Q. What are sources of water pollution and wastewater generation scenario?
Ans : It is estimated that 75% to 80% of water pollution by volume is caused by domestic sewage. The major industries causing water pollution include:
distilleries, sugar, textile, electroplating, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, pulp & paper mills, tanneries, dyes and dye intermediates, petro-chemicals, steel plants etc.
Non-point sources such as fertilizer and pesticide run-offs in rural areas also cause pollution. Only 60% of chemical fertilizers are utilized in soils and the balance
is leached into soil polluting the ground water. Excess phosphate run-off leads to eutrophication in lakes and water bodies.
Q. How many critically polluted areas have been identified?
Ans : The Central Pollution Control Board in consultation with State Pollution Control Boards has identified 24 areas in the country as critically polluted areas. These are: Bhadravati (Karnataka), Chembur (Maharashtra), Digboi (Assam), Govindgarh (Punjab), Greater Cochin (Kerala),
Kala-Amb (Himachal Pradesh), Parwanoo (Himachal Pradesh), Korba (Madhya Pradesh), Manali (Tamil Nadu), North Arcot (Tamil Nadu), Pali (Rajasthan), Talcher (Orissa), Vapi (Gujarat), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Dhanbad (Bihar),
Durgapur (West Bengal), Howrah (West Bengal), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Nagda- Ratlam (Madhya Pradesh), Najafgarh Drain (Delhi), Patancheru Bollaram (Andhra Pradesh), Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh), Ankleshwar (Gujarat), Tarapur (Maharashtra)
Q. Is there any legal and institutional framework to check pollution in the country?
Ans : Yes Sir, India has prepared pollution abatement strategy which include the legal framework and the Environment Authorities.
Environment Authorities : In addition to Pollution Control Boards, 6 Environmental Authorities have been constituted under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, including the National Environment Appellate Authority. These are :
The Central Ground Water Authority - Aqua Culture Authority, Dahanu Taluka Environment (Protection) Authority,
Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority for National Capital Region of Delhi,
Loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payment of Compensation) Authority for State of Tamil
Nadu. National Environment Appellate Authority,1997
Q. What are the measures for control of noise pollution?
Ans : Ambient standards in respect of noise for different categories of areas (residential,
commercial, industrial) and silence zones have been notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Noise limits have been prescribed for automobiles, domestic appliances and construction equipment at the
manufacturing stage. Standards have been evolved and notified for the
gene sets, fire crackers and coal mines. Regulatory agencies have been directed to enforce the standards for control and regulate noise pollution.
Q. What are the steps taken to control vehicular pollution?
Ans : The following steps are taken:
Establishment of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring throughout India.
Notification of Ambient Air Quality Standards under Environment (Protection) Act.
Notification of vehicular emission norms for year 1990-91,1996, 1998, 2000, 2001
Improving fuel quality by phasing out lead from gasoline, reducing diesel sulphur, reducing gasoline benzene, and etc.
Introduction of alternate fuelled vehicles like CNG/LPG.
Improvement of public transport system.
Phasing out of grossly polluting commercial vehicles.
Public awareness & campaigns.
Q. What is the impact of the steps to Ambient Air Quality?
Ans : Impacts of the steps taken in Delhi: All regulatory pollutants show a decreasing trend in concentrations in Delhi.
CO decreased to 3069 ug/m3 in 2000-2001 from 5450 ug/m3 in 1998. NO2 decreased from 75 ug/m3 in 1996 to 59
ug/m3 in 2000. Lead which is harmful especially for children, decreased remarkably due to phasing out of lead from gasoline. Another critical pollutant RSPM also shows a decreasing trend in Delhi.
Q. What steps have been taken to control noise pollution due to fire crackers?
Ans : The Govt. of India has enacted noise standards for fire-crackers vide G.S.R.682(E), dated 5th October, 1999, in an effort to control noise
pollution due to fire crackers Recently in March 2001, Central Pollution Control Board in association with National Physical Laboratory
(NPL), Delhi initiated a study on measurement of noise levels of fire-crackers available in the market.
The study indicates that 95% of the fire-crackers samples exceed the prescribed noise limits. Consequently, CPCB issued notice under Section 5, of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to the Department of Explosives,
Nagpur, to take immediate steps to control manufacturing of fire-crackers exceeding the prescribed limits. All the State Pollution Control
Boards/ Committees were also requested to initiate steps to control sale of fire-crackers exceeding the notified limits, in consultation with their respective local administrations.