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  Global warming

  Nearly twenty years since international leaders accepted that earth’s temperature is on the rise, and that human industrial activity is to blame. New projections by leading researchers show climate change will affect every aspect of modern life. Agricultural production will plunge as erratic weather shifts sowing seasons and monsoon rains. The melting of Himalayan glaciers — which many say is already taking place at double the rate elsewhere, will lead to challenges in water supply. Rising sea levels,  glacier melt, could submerge islands and coastal towns

       Northen pole melting


  Global warming is diminishing the Chhota Shigri glacier

 Global warming is diminishing the Chhota Shigri glacier in the Pir Panjal ranges of Himachal at 0.67 metres a year, report French and Indian researchers June 10, 2012. The study, jointly supported by the department of science and technology, India's space agency ISRO and the Indo-French Centre for Promotion of Advanced Research, concluded that the glacier mass was thinning more rapidly this century.  

   Countries responsible for Over 60 Percent of Global Warming

  Throughout a century of climate-damaging activity, seven countries have emerged as the worst offenders. According to a new study published in Environmental Research Letters, the U.S., China, Russia, Brazil, India, Germany and the UK top the list. 

  The research, as digested by New Scientist Damon Matthews of Concordia University in Montreal, Canada, and his colleagues calculated national contributions to warming by weighting each type of emission according to the atmospheric lifetime of the temperature change it causes. Using historical data, they included carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels and changes in land use – such as deforestation. They also accounted for methane, nitrous oxide and sulphate aerosols. These together account for 0.7 °C of the world’s 0.74 °C warming between 1906 and 2005.

 The US is the clear leader, responsible for 0.15 °C, or 22 percent of the 0.7 °C warming. China accounts for 9 percent, Russia for 8 percent, Brazil and India 7 per centeach, and Germany and the UK for 5 percent each.

   Global warming in countries most

     Credit: IOP Science

  65 percent Himalayan glaciers melting: Scientist

 Himalayan glaciers are retreating due to global warming. The foundation for a thorough scientific study and monitoring has been laid, with the release of three key reports on the sidelines of the Durban climate change summit in December 2011. Prepared by scientists working with the Kathmandu-based International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) the reports have for the first time identified over 54,000 glaciers spread over 64,000 square kilometres of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region, home to some of the world's highest peaks and the biggest storehouse of freshwater outside of the North and South Poles. The reports clearly say that not enough study has been done on the snow and ice systems of this vast ecologically fragile system. But it provides a snapshot of kind of changes that global warming is likely to cause in the coming decades.  

  In a startling comparison between the state of glaciers in the Himalayan ranges in the last 50 years, glaciologists say nearly 65 percent glaciers are melting due to global warming.  "Almost 65 percent of the glaciers are depleting in the Himalayan region in a comparison between 1955 and 2007. There are many recently formed lakes in the region, resulting to changing weather pattern," said scientist Alton Byer, who is studying melting glaciers, in a documentary screened by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) here July 20,2011. 

    Himalayan glaciers are retreating due to global warming

  Himalayan glaciers are retreating due to global warming.

The report 'Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability' from United Nation's IPCC details the impacts of climate change to date, the future risks from a changing climate and the opportunities for effective action to reduce risks.

United Nation's IPCC report on Climate Change 2014

   World climate summits.

  Some 15,000 people, including 103 government leaders and thousands of negotiators, pressure groups and journalists  from more than 190 nations headed at Copenhagen climate summit for 12 days of negotiations aimed at stopping global warming. The Accord that is meant to be a first step towards fighting the climate change that is affecting millions worldwide. 

  Earlier the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali concluded on December 15, 2007 with an agreement between nearly 190 countries to take "active" measures against global warming. This view was also expressed in The UN Climate Change Conference in Bali

  The World Bank sought to push billions of dollars onto the global environmental agenda, yet, it remains a big financier of gas and oil undertakings, which benefit the rich countries while putting an additional environmental burden on the the poor countries.  Scientists have warned that due to global warming the North Pole might be free of ice in 2008, turning into a vast expanse of water.   

Study from the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

 Previously a global warming report issued on April 6, 2007 by the United Nations also paints a near- apocalyptic vision of Earth's future: more than a billion people in need of water, extreme food shortages in Africa, a planetary landscape ravaged by floods and millions of species sentenced to extinction. Even in its softened form, the report outlined a range of devastating effects that will strike all regions of the world and all levels of society. Those without resources to adapt to the changes will suffer the greatest impact, according to the study from the U.N.'s  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  "It's the poorest of the poor in the world, and this includes poor people even in prosperous societies, who are going to be the worst hit," said Rajendra Pachauri, chairman of the IPCC, which released the report in Brussels, Belgium, on Friday. The report is the second issued this year by the United Nations, which marshaled more than 2,500 scientists to give their best predictions of the consequences of a few degrees increase in temperature. The report, in a sense, is a more focused indictment of the world's biggest polluters - the industrialized nations - and a more specific identification of the victims.   The report paints a bleak picture of the future, noting that the early signs of warming already are here:

* Spring is arriving earlier, with plants blooming weeks ahead of  schedule.
* In North America, snow pack in the West will decline, causing more floods in the winter and reduced flows in the summer, increasing competition for water for agriculture and municipal use. Water will come more often around the world in its least welcome forms: storms and floods.
* In the mountains, the runoff begins earlier in the year, shrinking glaciers in the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes.
* Habitats for plants and animals, both on land and in the oceans, are shifting toward the poles.
* Nineteen of the 20 hottest years on record have occurred since 1980, according to previous studies. The report said more frequent and more intense heat waves are "very likely" in the future.
In some places, warming might seem like a good thing, at first.  But at a certain point, as drought conditions spread, crops everywhere will suffer.
* By mid-century, temperature rise and drying soil will replace tropical forests with savannas in Brazil's eastern Amazonia, the report predicts.
* Rising temperature will reconfigure coastlines around the world, as the oceans rise and seawater surges over land. The tiny islands of the South Pacific and the Asian deltas will be overwhelmed by storm surges as sea levels rise.
* In the Andes and the Himalayas, melting glaciers will unleash floods and rock avalanches. But within a few decades, as the glaciers and snow pack decline, streams will dwindle, cutting off the main water supply to more than one-sixth of the world's population.
* Africa will suffer the most extreme effects, with a quarter of a billion people losing most of their water supplies, the report said. Food production will fall by half in many countries and governments will have to spend 10 percent of their budgets or more to adapt to climate changes, the report said.
* At least 30 percent of the world's species will disappear if temperatures rise 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit above the average levels of the 1980s and 1990s, the report said. 
* Environmental damage - such as overgrazed rangeland, deforested mountainsides, and denuded agricultural soils - means that nature will be more vulnerable than previously to changes in climate. In any case, when climate shifts occurred thousands and tens of thousands of years ago, they generally took place more gradually. 
 * Similarly, the world's vast human population, much of it poor, is vulnerable to climate stress. Millions live in dangerous places - on floodplains or in shantytowns on exposed hillsides around the enormous cities of the developing world. Often there is nowhere else for them to go. 
* Global warming almost certainly will be unfair. The industrialized countries of North America and Western Europe, along with a few other states, such as Japan,  are responsible for the vast bulk of past and current greenhouse-gas emissions.  

   Black Soot Choking Tibetan Glaciers: NASA and Chinese scientists

  On the Tibetan Plateau, temperatures are rising and glaciers are melting faster than climate scientists would expect based on global warming alone. A recent study of ice cores from five Tibetan glaciers by NASA and Chinese scientists in December 2009 confirmed the likely culprit: rapid increases in black soot concentrations since the 1990s, mostly from air pollution sources over Asia, especially the Indian subcontinent. Soot-darkened snow and glaciers absorb sunlight, which hastens melting, adding to the impact of global warming.

  NASA climate scientists combine satellite and ground-based observations of soot and other particles in the air with weather and air chemistry models to study how the atmosphere moves pollution from one place to another. This image is from a computer simulation of the spread of black soot (“black carbon” to climate scientists) over the Tibetan Plateau from August through November 2009. It shows black carbon aerosol optical thickness on September 26, 2009. (Aerosol optical thickness is scale that describes how much pollution was in the air based on how much of the incoming sunlight the particles absorbed.) Places where the air was thick with soot are white, while lower concentrations are transparent purple.

  Study by United Nations Environment Programme

  A team sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has found signs that the landscape of Mount Everest has changed significantly since Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay first conquered the peak in 1953. A primary cause is the warming global climate. But the growing impact of tourism is also taxing the world's highest mountain.

  The team found that the glacier that once came close to Hillary and Norgay's first camp has retreated three miles (five kilometers). A series of ponds that used to be near Island Peak, so-called because it was then an island in a sea of ice ;had merged into a long lake.  It's hardly news that the world's glaciers are melting a phenomenon widely attributed to gradually rising global temperatures. It was conducted by scientists from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, along with remote-sensing experts from the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Katmandu, Nepal. They predict that in the next half a decade or so, the Himalayas could experience intense flooding as mountain lakes overflow with water from melting glaciers and snowfields. The lives of tens of thousands of people who live high in the mountains and in downstream communities could be at severe risk as the mud walls of the lakes collapse under the pressure of the extra water. Major loss of land and other property would aggravate poverty and hardship in the region.    

  Albert Einstein once Link Doom of Human Race to Bees

  Once Albert Einstein  predicted this: "If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth, man would have no more than four years to live"? The unnerving question is "How true is this statement?" Isn't it? We can brag relentlessly about our knowledge on the advancement of science and technology today, but how much do we really know about the world we live? Sometime in 2007, the sudden, mysterious disappearance of honeybees in the United States, Europe and Brazil was a reminder of the quote attributed to Albert Einstein .

  1. Global warming accelerates the growth rates of pathogens such as the mites, viruses and fungi that affect the health of bee colonies. The unusual hot-cold weather fluctuations wreak havoc on bee populations which are accustomed to consistent seasonal weather patterns.
2. Increasing use of chemical pesticides and herbicides, which honeybees ingest during their daily pollination rounds have weakened or killed them
3. Increase in atmospheric electromagnetic radiation as a result of growing numbers of cell phones and wireless communication towers. Cell phone radiation interferes with bees' ability to navigate through the air. 
  Ultimately, whether Albert Einstein did ever discuss about the bees becomes an irrelevant concern in the light of a much graver question, "What should we do to encourage the return of the bees?"

  Global warming could unleash more violent storms

  Global warming could unleash more violent thunderstorms, flash floods and forest fires in the coming years, according to an Israeli researcher. The Tel Aviv University (TAU) researcher has predicted that for every one degree Celsius of warming, there will be approximately a 10 percent increase in lightning activity.This could have negative consequences in the form of flash floods, wild fires, or damage to power lines and other infrastructure, says Colin Price, TAU professor and head of geophysics, atmospheric and planetary Sciences.

  Under an ongoing project on the impact of climate change on lightning and thunderstorm patterns, he and his colleagues have run computer climate models and studied real life examples of climate change, such as the El Nino cycle in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, to determine how changing weather conditions impact storms, the Journal of Geophysical Research and Atmospheric Research reports.    





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