| Vocational educational in India
The aim of vocational educational in India is to develop skilled manpower through diversified courses to meet the requirements of mainly the unorganised sector and to instill
self- employment skills in people through a large number of self employment oriented courses. In India vocational
education is imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics.
The skill shortage in the Indian economy today is largely due to neglect of vocational
education The ASSOCHAM paper recently published revealed that nearly 300 million people of the 18-50 age
group are unemployed because they just do not have any marketable skills. At the same time, the scarcity of trained plumbers,
carpenters and mechanics in Indian cities drains the economy of 100 crores a year.
The importance of vocational education
The University Education Commission 1948-49 headed by Dr. S. Radhakrishanan rightly emphasized its importance in the following
words: "Professional education is the process by which men and women prepare for exacting, responsible service in the professional spirit.
The term may be restricted to preparation for fields requiring well informed and disciplined insight and skill of a high order. Less
exacting preparation may be designated as vocational or technical education."
The Kothari Commission (1964-66) was of the view that for a majority of occupations, university degrees were
not necessary; and these jobs could be competently performed by trained higher secondary students. This
Commission felt that it should be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of students completing 10 year
education to the vocational stream, which would reduce the pressure on the universities and also prepare students for gainful employment.
The National Policy on Education. 1986 further emphasized its importance and
observed: “The introduction of systematic, well planned and rigorously implemented
programme of vocational education is crucial in the proposed educational re-organization. Vocational
education will be a distinct stream intended to prepare students for identified vocations spanning several areas of activity”
Demand for skilled men
In India every year, 6,50,000 engineering graduates and approximately two million graduates pass out of colleges. Nearly
two-thirds of the 6,50,000 engineering graduates need to be re-skilled, so that they can get jobs in the
industry. Meanwhile, the developed world requires knowledge workers and skilled professionals. By 2020,
the developed world will have a shortage of 40 million working people, says a report. A recent study by global
HR consultancy Manpower Inc says that 41 per cent of employers worldwide are having difficulty filling
positions due to lack of suitable talent in their markets. Manpower
shortages can cripple economic growth. It can escalate wage rates, thereby reducing the competitiveness of these countries.
According to a survey, 72 per cent of our population is under the age of 35 and
it is estimated that 300 million people between the ages of 18 and 50 seek
employment of some form. While 57 per cent are unemployable, 46 million are
registered with employment exchanges with little hope of finding a suitable job.
But there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower
available and there is huge shortage of skilled talent. A majority of the youth passing out from our universities and
colleges do not have the specific skill sets required by various sectors in the market. Vocational education
be an enabler to help India shine in the unorganised sector.
emphasis on vocational education
The government of India in recent years has laid a lot of emphasis on streamlining
vocational education so that it fulfils the emerging need of the market by focusing on employability skills.
Hardly 1.5 to 2 million students have registered for vocational education and training in India. In his recent Budget speech, Union
Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee said: “The demographic advantage India has in terms of a large percentage of young population needs to be
converted into a dynamic economic advantage by providing them the right education and
Vocational education is being offered in India by industrial training institutes and
polytechnics. In India, vocational training is broadly referred to certificate level crafts training and is open to students, who leave school after 10th or 12th
While India has only 5100 Industrial Training Institutes and 1745
Polytechnics, China boasts of 500,000 vocational education and training (VET) institutes. Indian Sate Governments have 40 million
educated unemployed on their musters, even as the domestic industry is experiencing severe shortage
of skilled personnel. These 40 million youth are barely functional literates, unskilled in any
trade or vocation. In India, there is a severe shortage of trained and skilled technicians as only 1.5 to 2 million (2%) students in
the age group of 15 to 25 are enrolled in VET every year, as against 80% in Europe and 60% in
East Asian nations like Malaysia, Korea and Taiwan. Majority of Indian students are enrolled in general university
Role of private institutions
Realising the need for informal skilled workforce in the country, many private
institutes are offering vocational training with accreditation from recognised
industry bodies resulting in empowering employment. These institutes also assure better placements for their students.
A private institution VOCAD is one such institution which provides
corporates and businesses a one-stop manpower solutions for front end. A joint initiative of Collabrant Group and
STRiVE (an incubation of and IFMR Trust), VOCAD’s mission is to bridge the gap between
rural, semi urban and the urban areas through vocational education. The objective of this multibrand educational institute
is to bridge the skill gap and provide trained manpower to various emerging service sectors in India Inc.
and strive towards the development of skilled manpower for diversified sector through short term, structured job oriented courses.
VOCAD will put up over 600 centres in every district HQ of the country offering courses in the service sector
verticals of lifestyle, telecom, hospitality, healthcare, travel, consumer durables, food & grocery,
entrepreneurship management, banking, securities, insurance, mutual funds, basic accounting, basic commerce, BPO, construction management, auto mechanics, DTH, beauty etc.
They have launched eight centres as of now all over India.
Imparting vocational education and training would benefit all and also have the following advantages.
1. Prepare the youth for a vocation of their choice;
2. Build up a formidable work force of international quality, which would be in demand not only in India but also in all other countries. In India, only IT training is world class.
In the manufacturing and service sector, there are hundreds of skills and vocations for which there is worldwide shortage.
3 We need millions of trained people in agriculture, floriculture, horticulture, sericulture, fishery,
healthcare, tourism and in the manufacturing sector.
4. Reduce unemployment by supplying world-class skilled people.
5. Reduce cost and improve the productivity of services and manufacturing by providing skilled manpower to international standards.
Vocational training courses may be:
Computer Operator and Programme Assistant
Architectural Draughtsman ship
Desk Top Publishing
Electronics (Radio/TV/Tape Recorder Mechanic)
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
Cutting/Tailoring & Dress Making
Hair & Skin Care
Fruit & Vegetable Preservation Programs