Career and Research
In 1917 C.V.Raman was offered the newly endowed Palit Chair of Physics at
Calcutta University, and decided to accept it. After 15 years at Calcutta he became Professor at the Indian Institute of Science at
Bangalore (1933-1948), and since 1948 he is Director of the Raman Institute of Research at Bangalore, established and endowed by himself.
He also founded the Indian Journal of Physics in 1926, of which he is the Editor. Raman sponsored the establishment of the Indian Academy of
Sciences and has served as President since its inception. He also initiated the Proceedings of that academy, in which much of his work
has been published, and is President of the Current Science Association, Bangalore, which publishes Current Science (India).
On February 28, 1928, through his experiments on the scattering of light, he discovered the Raman effect . It was instantly clear that this discovery was
of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light . Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and
Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929.
Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in
1929. He was conferred a knighthood , and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities.
Raman was confident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as
well, and was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Richardson in 1928 and to de Broglie in 1929. He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him".
Sir CV Raman was the first Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences.
Before him Rabindranath Tagore had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.
Raman and Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin in 1932, which further confirmed the quantum nature of light.
Sir CV Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of
superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian
drums such as the tabla and the mridangam .Some of Raman's early memoirs appeared as Bulletins of the
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (Bull. 6 and 11, dealing with
the "Maintenance of Vibrations"; Bull. 15, 1918, dealing with the theory of the musical instruments of the violin family). He contributed an
article on the theory of musical instruments to the 8th Volume of the Handbuch der Physik,
Other investigations carried out by Raman were: his experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of
ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934-1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals
exposed to ordinary light. In 1948 Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner
fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. His laboratory has been dealing with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and
optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, pearly
felspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests have been the optics of colloids, electrical
and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.
Sir C.V.Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and
memberships of scientific societies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society early in his career
(1924) and knighted in 1929. In 1930 he won the
Nobel Prize in Physics . In 1941 he was awarded the Franklin Medal. In 1954 he was
awarded the Bharat Ratna . He was also awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957.
India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928.
Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and in 1949 he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore , Karnataka.
He served as its director and remained active there until his death in November 21, 1970 in Bangalore
at the age of 82.
1 Nobel Lectures , Physics 1922-1941/, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965)
2.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
3. Raman, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata - Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2007