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 Coriander (Dhania)



  Introduction
  Common Name
  Coriander Plant
  Chemical Constituents
  Cultivation
  History
  Coriander as Medicinal Herb
  Coriander other uses
  Coriander Benefits
  Economics
  Recent research

  Introduction

 

  Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. Coriander is the most widely used flavouring herb in the world. Its fresh leaves are used  in salads, soups, vegetables etc. due to its aromatic flavour.

  According to Dr. Fernanda Domingues, co-author of the new study, coriander oil could help the millions who suffer from food-borne illnesses every year. “It could become a natural alternative to common antibiotics,” she said. “We envisage the use of coriander in lotions, mouth rinses and even pills, to fight multidrug- resistant bacterial infections that otherwise could not be treated. This would significantly improve people’s quality of life,” she added.

   Like other spices coriander is available throughout the year providing a fragrant flavor that is reminiscent of both citrus peel and sage.

  Common Name:

  Hindi            : Dhania 
  English -       : Coriander 
  Latin  -          : Coriandrum sativum L.
  Family -        : Apiaceae Genus
  Bengali         : Dhana, Dhania
  Gujarati         : Kothmiri, Libdhaba
  Kannada       : Kothambri, Kothamiri bija
  Kashmiri       : Deaniwal, Kothambalari
  Malayalam    : Kothumpalari bija
  Marathi         : Dhana
  Oriya            : Dhania
  Punjabi         : Dhania
  Sanskrit        : Dhanyaka
  Tamil            : Kothamalli
  Telugu          : Dhaniyalu
  Spanish        : Cilantro
  French          : Corriandre
  German         : Koriander
  Swedish        : Koriander
  Arabic           : Kuzhbare
  Dutch            : Koriander
  Portuguese    : Coentro
  Russian         : Koriandr
  Japanese       : Koendoro
  Chinese         : Hu-sui

  Coriander Plant

Coriander plant is a thin stemmed, small, bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate, compound. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular, 3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are pale white to light brown in colour.

 The fruit of the coriander plant contains two seeds which, when dried, are the parts that are used as the dried spice. When ripe, the seeds are yellowish-brown in color with longitudinal ridges. They have a fragrant flavor that is reminiscent of both citrus peel and sage. Coriander seeds are available in whole or ground powder form.

    Coriander (Dhania) Flower

  Coriander (Dhania) Flower

 
  Coriander (Dhania) seeds

  Coriander (Dhania) Seeds

  Chemical Constituents

  The fresh leaves of Coriander plant contain about 0.012% oxalic acid and 0.172% calcium. Coriander's volatile oil is rich in beneficial phytonutrients, including carvone,  geraniol , limonene,  borneol,  camphor , elemol , and linalool . Coriander's flavonoids include quercitin,  kaempferol, rhamnetin , and  epigenin . Also coridander contains active phenolic acid compounds, including caffeic and chlorogenic acid.

   Cultivation

  Coriander  is a native of Mediterranean and commercially produced in India, Morocco, Russia, East European countries, France, Central America, Mexico, and USA. Coriander is a tropical crop and can be successfully cultivated as a rabi season crop in an area free from severe frost during February when the crop flowers and sets its seeds. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

  The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

  Coriander grows best when a cool damp spring is followed by a hot dry summer. Coriander tends to run quickly to seed if the plants are too dry at the seedling stage . Plants tolerate a pH in the range 4.9 to 8.3. Coriander is often cultivated, both on a garden scale and commercially. The plant is fast-growing, ripening its seed without difficulty   and it seems to be free of pests and diseases .

History

The use of coriander can be traced back to 5,000 BC, making it one of the world's oldest spices. It is native to the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions and has been known in Asian countries for thousands of years. Coriander was cultivated in ancient Egypt and given mention in the Old Testament. It was used as a spice in both Greek and Roman cultures, the latter using it to preserve meats and flavor breads. The early physicians, including Hippocrates, used coriander for its medicinal properties, including as an aromatic stimulant.
  The Russian Federation, India, Morocco and Holland are among the countries that commercially produce coriander seeds. Coriander leaves (cilantro) are featured in the culinary traditions of Latin American, Indian and Chinese cuisine.

  The seeds have been used medicinally and as a food flavouring since ancient times, and were introduced into Britain by the Romans. Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran.  Coriander seeds are used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid. In holistic and traditional medicine, it is u sed as a carminative and as a digestive 

  Coriander as Medicinal Herb

  In Ayurvedic system of medicine Coriander  is used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. In household medicines, it is used against seasonal fever, stomach disorders, and nausea.  
   Coriander is a commonly used domestic remedy, valued especially for its effect on the digestive system, treating flatulence, diarrhoea and colic . It settles spasms in the gut and counters the effects of nervous tension . The seed is aromatic, carminative, expectorant, narcotic, stimulant and st omachic. It is most often used with active purgatives in order to disguise their flavour and combat their tendency to cause gripe.

  Externally the seeds have been used as a lotion or have been bruised and used as a poultice to treat rheumatic

   Coriander other uses

Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products. The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups. The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders, sausages and seasonings. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings, in bakery products, meat products, soda and syrups, puddings, candy preserves and liquors. 

  Coriander fresh leaves are probably the most widely used flavouring herb in the world. The leaves have an aromatic flavour. It is used as a flavouring in many dishes including cakes, bread and curries, it is also widely used to flavour certain alcoholic liquors

  Coriander Benefits

Coriander seeds have a health-supporting reputation that is high on the list of the healing spices. In parts of Europe, coriander has traditionally been referred to as an "anti-diabetic" plant. In parts of India, it has traditionally been used for its anti-inflammatory properties. In the United States, coriander has recently been studied for its cholesterol-lowering effects. 
  Control of Blood Sugar, Cholesterol and Free Radical Production:  Recent research studies have confirmed all
three of these healing effects. When coriander was added to the diet of diabetic mice, it helped stimulate their secretion of insulin and lowered their blood sugar. When given to rats, coriander reduced the amount of damaged fats (lipid peroxides) in their cell membranes. And when given to rats fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, coriander
lowered levels of total and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol), while actually increasing levels of HDL (the "good" cholesterol). Research also suggests that the volatile oils found in the leaves of the coriander plant, commonly known as cilantro, may have antimicrobial properties. 

  Coriander   contains an antibacterial compound that may prove to be a safe, natural means of fighting Salmonella, a frequent and sometimes deadly cause of foodborne illness, suggests a study published in the June 2004 issue of the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry

 

  Economics

Coriander plants yield about 1¾ tonnes per acre of seed . The root is powdered and used as a  condiment . An essential oil from the seed is used as a food flavouring  Coriander Powder and coriander cumin mix powder which is a traditional Indian spices is a consumers product. In market Double Hathi Coriander Cumin Powder is a mixture of Whole Coriander Called Dhania which known for its strong smell and green color and Whole Cumin called Jeera Which known for its smell. The mixture of this coriander cumin powder adds great taste to food. This Coriander
cumin mixture powder is used in daily cooking. 

  The fruit of the coriander plant contains two seeds which, when dried, are the portions used as the dried spice. When ripe, the seeds are yellowish-brown in color with longitudinal ridges. Coriander seeds are available whole or in ground powder form.
   The most-active coriander contract NCORc1 on NCDEX for August 2011 delivery had struck a contract high of 6,326 per 100 kg in August, 2011, with a volume of 19,840 metric tonnes.

  Recent research

A new study suggests that oil from the seeds of coriander, the green herb that's more commonly known as cilantro — may be able to wipe out a broad range of harmful bacteria, including drug-resistant bugs and those
that commonly cause food poisoning.
  In the new study, Dr. Fernanda Domingues of the University of Beira  Interior, in Portugal, and her team tested the effect of coriander oil against 12 bacterial strains in the lab, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus  and methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus", or MRSA. Solutions containing 1.6% coriander or less killed or slowed the growth of all the bacteria tested.

 According to Dr.Fernanda Domingues, co-author of the study, coriander oil could help the millions who suffer from food-borne illnesses every year.

   

 

 

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