The fresh leaves of Coriander plant contain about 0.012% oxalic acid and 0.172% calcium. Coriander's volatile oil is rich
in beneficial phytonutrients, including carvone, geraniol , limonene, borneol, camphor , elemol , and linalool . Coriander's
flavonoids include quercitin, kaempferol, rhamnetin , and epigenin . Also coridander contains active phenolic acid compounds, including caffeic and chlorogenic acid.
Coriander is a native of Mediterranean and commercially produced in India,
Morocco, Russia, East European countries, France, Central America, Mexico, and USA. Coriander is a tropical crop and can be successfully
cultivated as a rabi season crop in an area free from severe frost during February when the crop flowers and sets its seeds.
It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline)
soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Coriander grows best when a cool damp spring is followed by a hot dry summer. Coriander tends to run quickly to seed if the plants are too dry at the seedling stage . Plants tolerate a pH in the
range 4.9 to 8.3. Coriander is often cultivated, both on a garden scale and commercially. The plant is fast-growing, ripening its seed without
difficulty and it seems to be free of pests and diseases .
The use of coriander can be traced back to 5,000 BC, making it one of
the world's oldest spices. It is native to the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions and has been known in Asian countries for thousands of
years. Coriander was cultivated in ancient Egypt and given mention in
the Old Testament. It was used as a spice in both Greek and Roman cultures, the latter using it to preserve meats and flavor breads. The
early physicians, including Hippocrates, used coriander for its medicinal properties, including as an aromatic stimulant.
The Russian Federation, India, Morocco and Holland are among the countries that commercially produce coriander seeds. Coriander leaves
(cilantro) are featured in the culinary traditions of Latin American, Indian and Chinese cuisine.
The seeds have been used medicinally and as a food flavouring since ancient times, and were introduced into Britain by the
Romans. Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran.
Coriander seeds are used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin
seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid. In holistic and traditional medicine, it is u sed as a carminative and as a digestive
In Ayurvedic system of medicine Coriander is used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and
aphrodisiac. In household medicines, it is used against seasonal fever, stomach disorders, and nausea.
Coriander is a commonly used domestic remedy, valued especially for its
effect on the digestive system, treating flatulence, diarrhoea and colic . It settles spasms in the gut and counters the effects of
nervous tension . The seed is aromatic, carminative, expectorant, narcotic, stimulant and st omachic. It is most often used with active
purgatives in order to disguise their flavour and combat their tendency to cause gripe.
Externally the seeds have been used as a lotion or have been bruised and used as a poultice to treat rheumatic
Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products.
The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups.
The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders, sausages and seasonings.
It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings, in bakery products, meat products, soda and syrups, puddings, candy preserves and liquors.
Coriander fresh leaves are probably the most widely used flavouring herb in the world. The leaves have an
aromatic flavour. It is used as a flavouring in many dishes including cakes, bread and curries, it is also widely used to flavour certain alcoholic liquors
Coriander seeds have a health-supporting reputation that is high on the list of the healing spices. In parts of Europe, coriander has traditionally been referred to as an "anti-diabetic" plant. In parts of
India, it has traditionally been used for its anti-inflammatory properties. In the United States, coriander has recently been studied
for its cholesterol-lowering effects.
Control of Blood Sugar, Cholesterol and Free Radical
Production: Recent research studies have confirmed all
three of these healing effects. When coriander was added to the diet of
diabetic mice, it helped stimulate their secretion of insulin and lowered their blood sugar. When given to rats, coriander reduced the
amount of damaged fats (lipid peroxides) in their cell membranes. And when given to rats fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, coriander
lowered levels of total and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol), while actually
increasing levels of HDL (the "good" cholesterol). Research also suggests that the volatile oils found in the leaves of the coriander
plant, commonly known as cilantro, may have antimicrobial properties.
Coriander contains an antibacterial compound that may prove to be a safe, natural means of fighting Salmonella, a frequent
and sometimes deadly cause of foodborne illness, suggests a study published in the June 2004 issue of the
Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry