Rose as Medicinal Herb
Other uses of Rose
Pests and diseases
Rose, one of the most beautiful flowers has been regarded as a symbol of love and beauty. Its fragrance and pleasing aroma
soothes the mind and enlivens the spirit. The aromatic rose oil extracted from this
flower finds innumerable applications from perfumery, aromatherapy to medicines.
English - Rose
Latin - Rosa centifolia Linn.
Family - Rosaceae
Satapatri, Suman, Sumana
గులాబి (gulaabi) Gulabapuvu
गुलाब (gulāb), Gulabanche
Gujrati - Seboti
Bengali: Golap, Sheuti
Chinese: 薔薇 (qiángwéi)
German: Rose (de)
Japanese: 薔薇 (ばら, bara), バラの花 (bara no hana)
Russian: роза (ru)
Roman: ruža f
French: rose (fr), La rose
Turkish: gül (tr)
Indonesian: bunga mawar
Greek: τριαντάφυλλο [tria(n)ˈdafiˌlo̞]
Persian: گل (gol)
Hebrew: ורד (vered)
گلاب (ur) (gulāb)
Arabic : وَرْدَة (wardä), Jarangbin
There are more than 120 species of Indian Roses pant. that includes white rose, pink rose, maroon rose, red rose, yellow rose and
orange rose. It has thorn on its stems. The cane has leaves and budeyes. A leaf consists of stipule, petiole, and leaflets. The leaves are -15 cm
long. The leaflets usually have the segrrated margins and few small prickles on the underside Rose
plant of the stem. Most of the roses are deciduous. The flower has five petals.
The flowers of Rosa damascena Mill contains essential
oil, 1% ketone, a bitter principle, 23% tannin, fatty oil and organic acids. The essential oil of this species yields 45.51% centronellol and
geraniol. Out of all types of roses the essential oil of this species is supposed to be the best having yield of around 0.05%. the red coloring
matter consists of 9 to 10% cyanine, quecitrin and dye stuff. Pollen from the flower of this species contains, 0.76 mg/100 gram of carotene,
1% sugar and 1.5% chlorogenic acid.
Rose plants are propagated by the seeds,
cuttings, layers and by budding. Rose plant require loamy, well drained soil. Budding is considered as the best method for propagating rose plants.
They are planted in the circular pits about 60- 90 cm across and 60 -75 cm deep. Remove all the broken and bruised leaves while planting the
plant. Roses require atleast six hours of direct sunlight for the growth. The best time to plant the Rose plants rests between September
to October. The rose plant needs cutting from time to time. It requires manures and fertilizers at the time of planting.
Roses have a long history. According to fossil evidence, the rose is 35 million years old. Discoveries of tombs in Egypt have
revealed wreaths made with flowers, with roses among them. The wreath in the tomb of Hawara dates to about AD 170, and represents the oldest preserved
record of a rose species still living. The ancient Greeks and Romans identified the rose with their
goddesses of love, Aphrodite and Venus. The emperors filled their swimming baths and fountains with rose-water and sat on carpets of rose petals for pleasure.
Rose cultivation took off in Europe in the 1800's with the introduction of roses from
China that had an amazing ability to bloom repeatedly throughout the summer and into late autumn. Rose bushes have become one of the most
popular garden shrubs bearing flowers in a variety of colors -red, white, pink, yellow, orange, and burgundy.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of
rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection
numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was planted by Loddiges nursery in England.
Until the beginning of the 19th century, all roses in Europe were shades
of pink or white. The red rose first came from China around 1800. Unusual green roses arrived a few decades later.
Today, with over 30,000 vareties, the rose counts as one of the most popular flowers chosen by gardeners throughout the world.
Rose oil is an essential oil with a volatile fragrant. The rose oil is obtained from fresh
roses by the process of steam distillation, solvent extraction or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. This oil
contains soothing, antiseptic properties, and moisture retention abilities. Due to its pleasing odor, this aromatic
oil is the costliest oil used in high grade perfumes and cosmetics. The rose oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour.
Rose Absolute is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight
of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers.
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of
roses. The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin.
`` Rose as Medicinal Herb
Rose oil contains extraordinary therapeutic properties and is found
helpful in cases of skin redness or inflammation and where moisturisation and regeneration are needed. A drop of pure rose oil not
only soothes the mind but also relaxes the soul. This essential oil possesses cooling, relaxing and toning properties. It can be used in the
treatment of a wide range of stress related conditions and can also be used for hyperactivity in children. Besides these, rose oil is also
great for hangovers, easing menstrual discomfort, depression, and symptoms of menopause. When applied on the skin, this sweet oil makes it
glowing and charming, besides softening it.
Rose petals are used to cures dry and patchy skin. The rose
scent has been used in pill making for centuries. Its herbal tea is used in the treatment of cold and cough. Rose hips also contain
carotenoid pigments, plant sterols, tocotrienols and a very high level of anthocyanins, catechins and other
polyphenolics, known phytochemicals to protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Other uses of Rose
Rose water: Rose water made as a byproduct of rose oil
production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. In France there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly
made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scone
Rose hips: Rose hips (the fruit of rose) for their high vitamin C content are used to make into jam, jelly, and marmalade
or are brewed for tea. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose
hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
Food supplement: Due to significant levels of vitamins rose have been used as a food supplement Dried Rose petals
are used during the hot weather for preparing cool drinks. Gulkand made by the mixture of Rose petals and white
sugar in equal proportion acts as the tonic and laxative.
Art and ornaments: Roses are used in various artistic disciplines.
They appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements.
As an ornamental plants: Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors.
Commercial use: Roses have been used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops
Herbal Tea: Rosehips are also used to make herbal teas, by boiling the
dried or crushed rose hips for 10 minutes. About 2 tablespoons of berries are used per pint of water. A half-teaspoon of dried mint may be added
to give a different flavor, or the acid-tasting tea may be sweetened.
Pests and diseases
Cultivated rose plants are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases.
Rose flower is cultivated primarily as part of commercial floriculture. Flowers picked appropriately packed and transported to domestic
urban market as well as abroad as there is practice to gift the flowers to loved ones. This is a growing rural industry in India.
Essential oil from Rose has good commercial value. In India it is done two ways. According to global demand and for the purpose of
need in domestic market for products of cosmetics and basic perfume. This product has demand as intermediate product as both perfume
and flavor. Gulkand is another product prepared by drying a homogenous
mixture of crushed rose flowers and sugar. It is usually sun dried. This sweetened paste of rose is commercially popular in India.
According to a new study the Rose flower and plant are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.
Scientists in Denmark reported that patients who daily consumed standardized rose hip powder (made from dog rose) experienced
significantly less joint stiffness and pain, and an improved general well-being and mood after 3 to 4 months of treatment. The use of rose
hip powder also enabled the patients to considerably reduce their standard pain medication. Rosehips contain high levels of antioxidant
flavonoids with known anti-inflammatory properties.