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Mango (आम) the fruit and medicine

  

  Introduction
 Common Name
 Mango Plant
 Varieties of Mangos
 Plantation and Cultivation
 History of Mango
 Chemical Compounds in Mango
 Uses of Mango
 Medicinal Properties
 Diseases and paste
 Storage and Trading
 Mango seeds and Food value
 Economy
 Mango Recipe
 Toxicity
 Technique makes mango trees bear earlier
 New hybrid mango varieties
 Sugar-free mangoes
 Modern Research

  Introduction

   Mango fruit

 Mango is called the king of all fruits because of its rich, luscious, aromatic flavor and a delicious taste in which sweetness and acidity are delightfully blended. It is the most popular and the choicest fruit and occupies a prominent place among the fruits of the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) reports that the mango is "considered indigenous to eastern Asia, Myanmar (Burma), and Assam state of India". Now mango is cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world.

 Mangoes are juicy with a sweet taste and high water content. The fruit flesh of a ripe mango is very sweet, with a unique taste. In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (called Ras) and the ripe mango is used in the preparation of a dish. Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. Mango is an  excellent overall nutritional source, rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates. The mango is also very rich in medicinal properties.



    Common Name

 Botanical name:       Mangifera indica Linn
 Latin name:              Mangifera Indica
 English name :         Mango
 Sanskrit:                  Amrah
 Hindi:                       Aam (आम)
 Marathi:                   Amba
 Tamil:                      Mamaram
 Telgu:                      Mamidi
 Malayalam               Mavu
 Kannada:                 Mavu
 French                    Mangue
 German                  Mango
 Italian                     Mango
 Spanish                  Manguey

 Mango is the most popular and the choicest fruit and occupies a prominent place among the fruits of the world 

  Mango King ‘Alphonzo’ mango which is grown only in Maharashtra and supplied to rest of the part

  Mango Plant

  The mango tree is an erect approximately 30 to 100 ft (10-30 m) high, with a broad, rounded canopy  In deep soil, the taproot descends up to a depth of 20 ft. The tree is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old and still fruiting. The leaves are evergreen and alternate leaves are borne at the tips of the branches. The new leaves, appearing periodically and irregularly on a few branches at a time, are yellowish, pink, deep- rose or wine- red, becoming dark- green and glossy above, lighter beneath. Full- grown leaves may be 4 to 12.5 in (10-32 cm) long and 3/4 to 2 1/8 in (2-5.4 cm) wide.

          Mango tree

 The mango tree. is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old. The leaves are evergreen and the flowers are yellowish or reddish. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white or yellowish or reddish flowers with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley.

 There is great variation in the form, size, color and quality of the fruits. They may be nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong, or somewhat kidney-shaped, often with a break at the apex, and are usually more or less lop-sided. They range from 6.5 to 25 cm in length and from a few grams to more than 2 kg. The skin is leathery, waxy, smooth, fairly thick, aromatic and ranges from light-or dark-green to clear yellow, yellow-orange, yellow and reddish-pink, or some variation, when fully ripe. Some have a "turpentine" odor and flavor, while others are richly and pleasantly fragrant. The flesh ranges from pale-yellow to deep-orange.

  Varieties of Mangos

   There are as many as 1365 varieties of mango all over the world. Over 1000  varieties of mango have been described in India. Perhaps some are duplicates by different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. Some famous varieties are:   

  'Bombay Yellow' ('Bombai')–high quality , 'Malda' ('Bombay Green'),  ' 01our' (polyembryonic)–a heavy bearer,  'Pairi' ('Paheri', 'Pirie', 'Peter', 'Nadusalai', 'grape', 'Raspuri', 'Goha bunder') , 'Safdar Pasand' 
'Suvarnarekha' ('Sundri'),  'Langra' , 'Rajapuri' ,  'Alampur Baneshan'–high quality but shy bearer 'Alphonso' ('Badami', 'gundu', 'appas', 'khader')–high quality, 'Bangalora'('Totapuri', 'collection', 'kili-mukku', abu Samada' in the Sudan)–of highest quality, 'Banganapally' ('Baneshan', 'chaptai', 'Safeda')–of high quality, 'Dusehri' ('Dashehari aman', 'nirali aman', 'kamyab')–high quality,  'Gulab Khas',  'Zardalu' , 'K.O. 11',  'Rumani' (often bearing an off-season crop), 'Samarbehist' ('Chowsa', 'Chausa', 'Khajri')–high quality 'Vanraj',  'K.O. 7/5' ('Himayuddin' ´ 'Neelum') , 'Fazli' ('Fazli malda')–high quality, 'Safeda Lucknow'   'Mulgoa'–high quality, 'Neelum'

  Plantation and Cultivation

  Climate: The mango is naturally adapted to tropical lowlands between 25°N and 25°S of the Equator and up to elevations of 3,000 ft (915 m). It is grown as a dooryard tree at slightly cooler altitudes but is apt to suffer cold damage. The best climate for mango has rainfall of 30 to 100 in (75-250 cm) in the four summer months (June to September) followed by 8 months of dry season.

  Soil: The mango tree is not too particular as to soil type, providing it has good drainage.  Rich, deep loam certainly contributes to maximum growth, but if the soil is too rich and moist and too well fertilized, the tree will respond vegetative but will be deficient in flowering and fruiting. The mango performs very well in sand, gravel, and even oolitic limestone.

 Propagation: Mango trees grow readily from seed. Germination rate and vigor of seedlings are highest when seeds are taken from fruits that are fully ripe, not still firm. Seeds of polyembryonic mangos are most convenient for local and international distribution of desirable varieties. However, in order to reproduce and share the superior monoembryonic selections, vegetative propagation is necessary. Inarching and  approach- grafting are traditional in India. Tongue-, saddle-, and root-grafting (stooling) are also common Indian practices.

 Dwarfing: Reduction in the size of mango trees would be a most desirable goal for the commercial and private planter. In India, double-grafting has been found to dwarf mango trees and induce early fruiting.

 Culture: About 6 weeks before transplanting either a seedling or a grafted tree, the taproot should be cut back to about 12 in (30 cm). Inasmuch as mango trees vary in lateral dimensions, spacing depends on the habit of the cultivar and the type of soil, and may vary from 34 to 60 ft (10.5-18 m) between trees. Closer planting will ultimately reduce the crop. The young trees should be placed in prepared and enriched holes at least 2 ft (60 cm) deep and wide, and 3/4 of the top should be cut off.

    Mangoes

Mangoes are likely to be more expensive this year as the country's overall production is estimated to come down by up to 20 per cent because of crop damage in some states due to last month's unseasonal rains, industry body Assocham said on April 15, 2014.

Rising exports orders from UAE, the UK, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bangladesh and other countries is also expected to put pressure on availability of this summer fruit for domestic consumers, it added.

European Union impose a ban on Indian mangoes

The European Union’s Standing Committee on Plant Health on March 26 decided to impose a ban on Indian mangoes and some vegetables from May due to concerns over the presence of pests and insects in consignments arriving from India.

 Agriculture News

Mango a super functional food

 Recent research has assigned mango “functional foods” status. By scientific research, mangoes are also a powerful medicinal food, as they contain nutrients that can help “clear up skin, promote eye health, stave off diabetes and even prevent the formation and spread of cancer.” 

  At a recent meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), it was revealed that eating mangoes daily can help moderate blood sugar levels. In three months, the blood sugar levels of the mango-eating animals compared with the ones without mango in their diet showed a significant fall. Mangoes have been shown to help cancer management. Most of the thousands of anti-oxidant phytochemicals found in the plant kingdom are also present in mangoes.Dr Susanne Talcott and her husband who, together, found that mango compounds kill cancer cells, especially of breast and colon cancers. An advice for all diabetics, do not eat fruits with a meal.

  Harvesting: Mangos normally reach maturity in 4 to 5 months from flowering. Fruits of "smudged" trees ripen several months before those of untreated trees. The fruits will be larger and heavier even though harvested 2 weeks before untreated fruits.

 Blooming and Pollination: Mango trees less than 10 years old may flower and fruit regularly every year. 
Thereafter, most mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. In most of India, flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March. Mango flowers are visited by fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and various bugs seeking the nectar and some transfer the pollen but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs.

   History of Mango

  Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th century BC. By the 10th century AD, they were transported to East Africa  and subsequently introduced to Brazil, West Indies and Mexico, where climate allows its appropriate growth.

  The origins of mango are thought to have been from a plant from Malaysia, India and Indonesia. It probably was grown in southeast Asia before the seventh century, although the only references found are from Cambodia. The 14th century Muslim traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu. 

  Mango is now widely cultivated as a fruit tree in frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is now cultivated in southern China, Malaysia, Indonesia, warmer parts of Australia, Philippines, Hawaii, and West Indies, Madagascar and along the coast of tropical Africa. In North America, it is grown to a limited extent in Florida and California. In Bangladesh Mango occupies about 60% area under fruits.

  Chemical Compounds in Mango

  Analysis of the edible flesh (per 100gms.) of the green mango gave the following average values: moisture 87.5; minerals 0.4; fibre 1.2; energy, 44k calorie; protein 0.7, fat 0.1; carbohydrates 20.1grms. calcium 10; iron 5.4; vitamin B-1, 0.04; vitamin B-2, 0.01; vitamin-C 3 mgs. and carotene (as vitamin A) 90 ugm. Ripe mango: moisture 78.6; mineral matter 0.4; fibre 0.7; energy, 90 k calorie; protein 1.0; fat 0.7; and carbohydrates 20.0 grms.; calcium 16; iron 1.3; vitamin B-1, 0.10; vitamin B-2, 0.07; vitamin C 41mgs. and carotene 8,300 ~lgm/l00grms. 

 The fruit is a rich source of potassium. Analysis of pulp ash (ash content, 0.53%) gave the following values; 47.37; calcium 6.38; magnesium 1.62; phosphors 6.49; Sulphur 3.67; chlorine 3.88/g. Analysis of mangoes gave the following ranges of vitamin (other than vitamin A) values: thiamine, 40.82130.50 ugm; riboflavin,  89.39-198.20 ugm; niacin, 1.38-6.27mg.; and ascorbic acid, 4.38-39.96 mg/l00g.

  Uses of Mango

  Mangoes are widely used in chutney, which is usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hot chilis or limes. In India, ripe mango is often cut into thin layers, desiccated , folded, and then cut and sold as bars that are very chewy known as amavat or halva. Dried unripe mango used as a spice and is known as amchur or amchoor in India and ambi in Urdu.

 Mango juice may be spray-dried and powdered and used in infant and invalid foods, or reconstituted and drunk as a beverage. The dried juice, blended with wheat flour has been made into "cereal" flakes, A dehydrated mango custard powder has also been developed in India, especially for use in baby foods. Half-ripe or green mangos are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce. Ripe mangos frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers.

  Mango is an excellent overall nutritional source rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates. It contains diverse essential vitamins and minerals, many of which are particularly high in content. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9%, respectively. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include numerous carotenoids, polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and xanthone, mangiferin etc.

  Medicinal Properties

  All parts of the mango plant from the seeds and flowers to the leaves and gum are used in traditional South Asian medicine, but the fruits are most important. The mango is very rich in medicinal properties.  The root and bark are acrid; cooling; astringent to the bowels. The leaves are acrid; astringent to the bowels cure "vata", "pitta", and "kapha" according to Ayurveda. The flowers are cooling and astringent to the bowels; improve taste and appetite; cause "vita"; cure leucorrhoea, bad blood; good in dysentery, bronchitis, biliousness, urinary discharges. The unripe fruit is acrid, sour, tasty; cures "vata", "kapha", biliousness, "tridosha", blood impurities; astringent to the bowels; cures thought troubles, ulcers, dysentery, urinary discharges, vaginal troubles.

  Increases immunity :  According physicians, it strengthens and invigorates all the nerves, tissues and muscles in the brain, heart and other parts of the body. It cleans the body from within and helps to improve immunity. 

 Provides protection against cancer:  Mangoes are rich in dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoids (an antioxidant compound). It has been found that mangoes have qualities that can protect against colon, breast and prostate cancers as well as from leukaemia.

 Maintain good vision:  Mangoes are rich source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin. These compounds are antioxidants and can help in improving and maintaining good vision.

 Control blood pressure:  Fresh mangoes are a good source of potassium. Potassium is an important component of the cell and body fluids. It also helps to control the heart rate and blood pressure.

 Improves skin and complexion:  Mangoes are rich with Vitamin A providing the body with an essential nutrient to maintaining healthy skin and complexion as well as the integrity of the mucus membranes.

 Protects from heart disease:  Mangoes are also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Vitamin C helps the body to develop resistance against infections and scavenges harmful free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also helps helps to protect the heart from coronary artery disease  and stroke.

 Prevents anemia: The fruit contains moderate amounts of copper.Copper is an essential co-factor for the proper function of many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase. Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells.

  The unripe fruit is said to be useful in ophthalmic and emptions, and the seeds in asthma. The ripe fruit is considered laxative, and therefore much prized by persons labouring under habitual constipation. The bark and the kernel are known as astringent and used in hemorrhage, diarrhea and other discharges. The juice of the kernel, if snuffed, can stop nasal bleeding. The kernel is also described as an anathematic and containing a large quantity of gallic acid, highly useful in bleeding piles and menorrhagia.

  The unripe fruit roasted, dissolved in water and made into syrup with sugar is freely taken by the Indians to prevent sunstroke. Unripe mangoes toasted and made into syrup form a reputed remedy for heat apoplexy. The dried kemel of the ripe fruit is used in native India as an astringent in diarrhea. The gum of the mango tree is used for cracked feet with good effect. 

  Ripe mango is a suitable choice for hypertensive patients as it is a good source of potassium and only contains traces of sodium. The mango is highly recommended for pregnant women and individuals suffering from anemia because of its iron content. Mango helps the skin become softer, gives it a shining glow and is effective in opening clogged skin pores. Mango contains a large amount of tryptophan, the precursor to the 'happiness-hormone' serotonin. Mango products are a good complementary food for children of weaning age  as they contain necessary vitamins. Mango improves the appetite and is an effective antidote for various body toxins. Mango juice helps prevent mental weakness and improves concentration and memory. In the Ayurvedic text Bhavaprakasa, a syrup from  the juice of the ripe fruit, sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic.

  Mango leaves have anti-inflammatory, diuretic and cardio tonic properties. Dried and powdered mango leaves are a good treatment for excreting renal stones and improving hair growth. Mango leaves are also an effective treatment for burns.

  Mango bark  is effective in treating hemoptysia, hemorrhaging, nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, rheumatism and diphtheria. A decoction of mango bark added to one gram of black salt helps treat diarrhea. 

  Mango root paste can reduce fever when applied to the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. 

 Dried mango seed is a good toothpaste. It strengthens the gums and helps in curing dental problems like pyorrhea and halitosis.

  Diseases and paste

  The fruit flies, Dacus ferrugineus and D. zonatus, attack the mango in India. Mango seed weevils, Sternochetus  (Cryptorhynchus) mangiferae and S. gravis, are major pests, undetectable until the larvae tunnel their way out. The leading predators of the tree in India are jassid hoppers (Idiocerus spp.) variously attacking trunk and branches or foliage and flowers, and causing shedding of young fruits. The mango-leaf webber, or "tent caterpillar", Orthaga euadrusalis, has become a major problem in North India. 
   One of the most serious diseases of the mango is powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae), which is common in most growing areas of India. The fungus affects the flowers and causes young fruits to dehydrate and fall, and 20% of the crop may be lost. It is controllable by regular spraying. A number of organisms in India cause white sap, heart rot, gray blight, leaf blight, white pocket rot, white spongy rot, sap rot, black bark and red rust.

  Powdery mildew:  Powdery mildew is one of the most damaging diseases that affects mango trees. The white powder that is the primary symptom of the disease can cover leaves, flowers or fruit and eventually cause early fruit drop and crop loss. Spray affected trees with a 0.2 percent solution of wettable sulfur. Fifteen days later, spray with 0.1 percent mixture of tridemorph. And then 15 days after that, treat the trees with a 0.1 percent mixture of dinocap.

  Anthracnose:  Anthracnose is another common disease of mango trees. This disease can produce leaf spots, kill young blossoms, shoots and branches and even rot fruit. As soon as you spot anthracnose on your mango tree's blossoms, spray the tree with two treatments of a 0.1 percent mixture of bavistin at 15-day intervals. To treat anthracnose spray it with a 0.3 percent copper fungicide solution.

  Die back: Die back first darkens bark. As the disease progresses, twigs and branches wither and dry and the leaves drop off the tree. Treatment for die back is most effective when the disease is caught during the bark darkening stage. To treat die back, prune the affected branches two inches past the affected section. Then spray the entire tree with a 0.3 percent solution of copper oxychloride.

 Bacterial canker: Canker disease attacks several varieties of mango and can cause leaf and fruit drop, total crop loss and even storage rot. The disease appears as moist "boils" that later turn into cankers. If caught early, bacterial canker can be controlled with three treatments of a 100ppm solution of streptocycline or Agrimycin-100 given at 10-day intervals.

  Red rust: Red rust disease is caused by an alga that manifests early as greenish gray spots on the leaves that eventually turn into in rusty-looking red spots. leaf surface, leaving a creamy white mark at the original rust spot. The disease can be reduced by supply of balanced nutrients to the plants and two sprays of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or Copper oxychloride (0.3%)  at 15 days interval.

 Sooty mold disease:  Sooty mold forms on the residue of insects like aphids, scale insects and mealy bugs that excrete sticky residue onto the leaves. Sooty mold will continue to recur unless you get rid of the underlying pest problem. In the meantime, prune the affected foliage.

 Storage and Trading

  In India, mangos are picked quite green to avoid bird damage and the dealers layer them with rice straw in ventilated storage rooms over a period of one week. Quality is improved by controlled temperatures between 60° and 70° F (15° -21° C). Ethylene treatment causes green mangos to develop full color in 7 to 10 days depending on the degree of maturity, whereas untreated fruits require 10 to 15 days. One of the advantages is that there can be fewer pickings and the fruit color after treatment is more uniform.  Washing the fruits immediately after harvest is essential, as the sap which leaks from the stem bums the skin of the fruit making black lesions that lead to rotting.

  Some cultivars, especially 'Bangalora', 'Alphonso', and 'Neelum' in India, have much better keeping quality than others. In Bombay, 'Alphonso' has kept well for 4 weeks at 52° F (11.11° C); 6 to 7 weeks at 45° F (7.22° C). Storage at lower temperatures is detrimental inasmuch as mangos are very susceptible to chilling injury

  In India, large quantities of mangos are transported to distant markets by rail. To avoid excessive heat buildup and consequent spoilage, the fruits, padded with paper shavings, are packed in ventilated wooden crates and loaded into ventilated wooden boxcars. 

 Green seedling mangos, harvested in India for commercial preparation of chutneys and pickles as well as for table use, are stored for as long as 40 days at 42° to 45° F (5.56°-7.22° C) with relative humidity of 85% to 99%. Some of these may be diverted for table use after a 2-week ripening period at 62° to 65° F (16.67° 18.13° C).

  Mango seeds and Food value

  The fresh kernel of the mango seed (stone) constitutes 13% of the weight of the fruit, 55% to 65% of the weight of the stone. The kernel is a major by-product of the mango-processing industry. After soaking to dispel the astringency (tannins), the kernels are dried and ground to flour which is mixed with wheat or rice flour to make bread and it is also used in puddings.

  The kernel of the mango seed (stone)
  The fat extracted from the kernel is white, solid like cocoa butter and tallow, edible, and has been proposed as a substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate. The peel constitutes 20% to 25% of the total weight of the fruit. Researchers have shown that the peel can be utilized as a source of pectin.

 Indian analyses of the mango kernel reveal the amino acids–alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, at levels lower than in wheat and gluten. Tannin content may be 0.12-0.18% or much higher in cultivars.

  By processing mango pits instead of throwing them away, one University of Alberta researcher discovered a novel way to preserve food—and potentially combat dangerous bacterial infections such as Listeriosis. An outbreak of the illness last year in Canada left at least 21 people dead, making the findings published recently in the "Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry" particularly timely, and promising.

  Economy

  India, with 2,471,000 acres (1,000,000 ha) of mangos (70% of its fruit-growing area) produces 65% of the world's mango crop–9,920,700 tons (9,000,000 MT).  India far outranks all other countries as an exporter of processed mangos, shipping 2/3 of the total 22,046 tons (20,000 MT). Mango preserves go to the same countries receiving the fresh fruit and also to Hong Kong, Iraq, Canada and the United States. Following India in volume of exports are Thailand, 774,365 tons (702,500 MT), Pakistan and Bangladesh, followed by Brazil. Mexico ranks 5th with about 100,800 acres (42,000 ha) and an annual yield of approximately 640,000 tons (580,000 MT). The Philippines have risen to 6th place. Tanzania is 7th, the Dominican Republic, 8th and Colombia, 9th. Leading exporters of fresh mangos are: the Philippines, shipping to Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan; Thailand, shipping to Singapore and Malaysia; Mexico, shipping mostly 'Haden' to the United States, 2,204 tons (2,000 MT), annually, also to Japan and Paris; India, shipping mainly 'Alphonso' and 'Bombay' to Europe, Malaya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; Indonesia, shipping to Hong Kong and Singapore; and South Africa shipping (60% 'Haden' and 'Kent') by air to Europe and London in mid-winter. Chief importers are England and France, absorbing 82% of all mango shipments.

 Yield:  The yield varies with the cultivars and the age of the tree. At 10 to 20 years, a good annual crop may be 200 to 300 fruits per tree. At twice that age and over, the crop will be doubled. In Java,, old trees have been known to bear 1,000 to 1,500 fruits in a season. Some cultivars in India bear 800 to 3,000 fruits in "on" years and, with good cultural attention, yields of 5,000 fruits have been reported. 

 The seed inside peach is already being processed for oil in the cosmetics industry. When the seed of peach, which is much smaller than mango kernels and therefore yields much less oil is being commercially exploited, then why not mango kernel? An average mango kernel contains about 8% to 15% extract potential (butter and oil).

 Mangoes ripened using carbide

 Beware if your fruit vendor uses carbide to ripen the mangoes.Use of carbide for mango ripening is banned.It degrades nutrition value of the fruit. Consumption of fruit ripened using carbide can cause diarrhoea, mouth ulcers, dizziness and even cancer in the long run.

    Mangoes can help fight flab: study

  Eating a few mango verities could help you lose weight, but only if you eat the skin you normally throw away, Australian researchers have claimed.

 Advising that while eating the wrong variety of this fruit could have the opposite effect.
  University of Queens land scientists have found the skins of the common Irwin and Nam Doc Mai varieties contain compounds that inhibit the formation of human fat cells. On contrary, the skin of the Kensington Pride mango has compounds that promote fat cell growth, a media report said. Mike Gidley said lab tests involved exposing human fat cells to extracts from the skin and flesh of three varieties. He said there was a long way to go, but the findings opened up the possibility of a supplement that could help fight obesity. "The next stage is to identify the useful molecules in the peel that inhibited fat cell formation," Gidley said.

    Amchoor, the mango powder

  Amchoor is made from green, unripe mangos, which are sliced, sun-dried and ground into a fine powder.   
  Amchoor has a pleasant sweet-sour aroma of dried fruit, astringent, but also sweet fruity flavour. The spice adds sour taste like tamarind. Infact it ha

 s qualities as lemon or lime juice. Interestingly amchoor powder is made only in India.
Storage isn't much of a  problem for this spice except for that it should not be kept near strong smelling  spices like cinnamon or bay leaf, which would affect the flavor.

 It has a cooling effect and is great for digestion. Infect it is added to some of the summer drinks for the same reason.The chef's stronghold being Goan dishes usually adds amchoor in a lot of dishes he prepares,

  Alphonsos worth Rs 45 lakh sold at 12-day city mango festival in 2012
  A 12-day-long Alphonso mango festival in May 2012, organized to provide naturally ripened Alphonso mangoes to Nashikites, received an overwhelming response in the city, with around 25,000 dozen Alphonso mangoes worth Rs 45 lakh being sold.
The festival, which was organized by the Konkan Udyog Paryatan Vikas Kendra (KUPVK), was held at the hall of the CBS branch of the Nashik
  District Central Co-operative Bank (NDCCB). Datta Bhalerao, office- bearer of the KUPVK, said, "We received a very good response from consumers in Nashik. Around 25,000 dozen Alphonso mangoes, worth Rs 45 lakh, were sold during the 12-day festival. The aim behind organizing the exhibition was to make original, naturally ripened mangoes available to the consumers from Nashik."

 Apart from Alphonso, other varieties including Payari and Keshar were also put on sale. Prices were in the range of Rs 300 to Rs 1,200 per dozen. Apart from mangoes, mango- related by-products were also available for sale. During the exhibition, consumers were educated about recognizing, eating and preserving genuine Alphonso mangoes.

    Mango kernel extracts are hidden treasures

  Upto 3% to 12% of mango kernel oil is generally used in the manufacturing of mango- based lotions, creams, balms, soaps and hair conditioners. Besides being an ingredient in the aforementioned products, the oil can also be used in its pure form. The pure form is typically tossed into bathing water, the aroma of which awakens all the senses, while the oil works its magic to rejuvenate the body.These extracts even have natural healing properties a la high oxidation, healing and regeneration.

  Dermatologists recommend mango kernel oil to protect against ultraviolet radiation, to clear blemishes and wrinkles, and to treat skin disorders like eczema. Besides this, it effectively treats dry skin, skin allergies, skin peeling and prevents stretch marks.

 The mango kernel fat has good potential as a cocoa butter substitute. It has good content of tocopherol, phytosterols and triterpenes which makes mango butter a functional cosmetic ingredient with a potential as a natural supplement in cosmetic formulations.

   Mango Recipe

 Mango Lassi   Mango Lassi is most popular in India   Ingredients: 1 cup plain, whole-milk kefir, Flesh of 2 Ataulfo mangoes, some teaspoon kosher salt, and cayenne pepper ( to taste)

  Procedures: Combine all ingredients in a blender and blend them. You can add more cayenne pepper if desired. Pour into glasses and serve.

  Strawberry-Mango Ice Pops   
   Ingredients: 1 cup thinly sliced ripe strawberries,  1 mango, peeled, pitted and diced, 
1 tablespoon sugar and 1 cup mango nectar
   Preparation: 
1. Set temperature of freezer as low as it will go. Soak 10 wooden pop sticks in warm water for 10 minutes.
2. Drop strawberry slices into each cavity of a 10-pop mold, bending them so they won't clump. Blend mango and sugar in a food processor until smooth. With machine running, pour in nectar.
3. Pour mango mixture over strawberries to fill each cavity. Poke with a skewer to release air bubbles and distribute berries. Place top on mold and add sticks. Freeze for 8 to 12 hours.
4. To remove pops from mold, run top under tepid water to loosen, then swish bottoms in a basin of tepid water until loose. Pull middle sticks to remove top and all 10 pops.  Store pops in freezer bags. 
  Green Mango Chutney
  Ingredients: 1}. 2 raw mangoes, peeled and cubed  2}. 1 tablespoon red chili powder/cayenne 
3}. 2 red dry chili pepper  4}. 1 tablespoon oil  5}. salt to taste 6}. 1 teaspoon panch phoron powder (jeera/cumin, fenugreek/methi, kalonji, brown mustard seeds, fennel seeds/saunf)
7}. 2 cups of jaggery, grated or broken/chopped into small pieces (or brown sugar)  8}. 1/4 – 1/2 teaspoon dry ginger powder  9.} 1 tablespoon lime juice 10}. 1 dried red chili pepper , 1.5 teaspoon of cumin seeds and 2 cloves 
  Preparation: 1] Slice off the end of the green mangoes and soak them in water for about 30 minutes. 2) Peel the green skin off the mangoes and slice them in cubes. 3) Toss the mango with about a teaspoon of salt and the red chili powder.  4) Allow it to sit for about 15 minutes. 5) Dry roast 1 dried red chili pepper, 1.5 teaspoon of cumin and the cloves (ingredients in n. 10); each separately.  6) Heat oil in a wok/kadai/pan.  7) Break one dried red chili in few pieces and keep the other one whole.  8) Add to the oil and allow them to sizzle and then add the teaspoon of panch phoron. 8)  When the spices sizzle, add the chili powder coated mango and toss well for the oil to coat the cubes and they are glistening.  Cook for about 5-7 minutes. Add lime juice, a pinch of salt and the ginger powder, toss the mangoes for the spices to be coated well, reduce
the heat and cover and cook for about 5 minutes. Keep stirring at low heat. The jaggery will start to melt and bubble and the chutney will have more liquid in it. Allow the mangoes to cook with the jaggery. Store cooled chutney in sterilized containers/glass jars and refrigerate.

    

 

 

   Toxicity

 The sap which exudes from the stalk close to the base of the fruit is somewhat milky at first, also yellowish- resinous. It becomes pale-yellow and translucent when dried. It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol, mangiferol. It is a potent skin irritant, and capable of blistering the skin of the normal individual. As with poison ivy, there is typically a delayed reaction. Hypersensitive persons may react with considerable swelling of the eyelids, the face, and other parts of the body. They may not be able to handle, 
peel, or eat mangos or any food containing mango flesh or juice. If eaten in excess it causes loss of appetite, typhoid, blood impurities, eye sores. Mango wood should never be used in fireplaces or for cooking fuel, as its smoke is highly irritant.

  Technique makes mango trees bear earlier

  The Thanjavur based Mr. Kulandaisamy developed a new technique for growing grafted mango seedlings. He maintains a nursery in 90 acres called Tari Bio-Tech. The nursery supplies close to 12 lakh plantings annually and home to nearly 50 mango varieties.

 Usually the grafted seedlings are planted in the field and grown, but the farmer says, “through this new technique (polybag growing), mango seedlings come to commercial bearing in 2- 3 years.” Giving details about how he does the grafting the farmer says: “Good, bearing mother plants are selected and the desired variety is grafted together and grown for 45 days in plastic bags in a controlled environment. After the first flush of leaves emerge, the seedlings are moved to open conditions and kept under shade and watered.”

 Grafting ensures purity in variety, till date many growers simply plant the grafted seedlings they buy straight into the open field. The investment, maintenance and labour for growing the plants is quite high. Whereas, in the poly bag method, the plants are grown for 1 to 2 years and then planted in the main field. “The cost of cultivation drastically comes down. Farmers need to take care of the tree only for 2 to 3 years, after which it comes to bearing and can be harvested,” explains Mr. Kulandaisamy.

 "I use my own bio plant growth promoters while I plant my grafted seedlings in the poly bags. The plants are regularly sprayed with our own bio growth promoters and grow quite well. So far we have been sending our seedlings to several parts of the country and are receiving encouraging feedbacks," he says. More than half a dozen mango varieties are being grafted in his farm and grown to be sold.

 Even a single tree, if grown by this method and taken care of properly, can yield more than 150 fruits. For an acre about 80 seedlings are required and in a year a farmer can get an income of at least Rs. 1,50,000 (minimum), assures Mr.Kulandaisamy.

  New hybrid mango varieties

   Indian Agriculture Research Institute has developed four hybrid mango varieties which promise a yield three-four times higher than the existing varieties. This is likely to scale up mango production in the next 10 years without any additional input cost. The varieties named Pusa Pratibha, Pusa Peetamber, Pusa Shreshth and Pusa Lalima possess traits of popular varieties like Dussehari and Neelam.

  These hybrids are regular bearers as against Dussehari which bears fruits on alternate years. Fruits have higher pulp content and longer shelf life which extends to 7-8 days at room temperature after ripening." These varieties will replace aging mango trees as they are resistant to mango malformation and major insect pests," he says. IARI has distributed over 350 saplings this year across the country for plantation. "Multiplication will start from next year and in the next 10 years, a large number of farmers would adopt these varieties," he adds.

  Sugar-free mangoes

 Malihabad based Nafees Nursery in Uttar Pradesh has developed a technique of rearing ‘sugar-free’ mangoes and normal mangoes, both types on the same plant. This experiment is targeted to especially cater to the cravings of diabetics, says its promoter Shabiul Hasan. “Ever year the one fruit that people wait to eat is the mango. But diabetics usually stay away from the fruit. This project will provide an alternative to them, so they can also enjoy this mango variety.”

  Modern Research

  The Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences published mango research funded by the National Mango Board. The research indicates that consuming mangos is linked to better diet quality and nutrition intake, according to a news release. “Overall, the results found in this study show that people who consume mangos tended to have better intake of nutrients like potassium, vitamin C and dietary fiber, contributing to better overall diet quality than those who do not,” Dr. Victor Fulgoni III, of Nutrition Impact LLC, said in the release. “This research also underscores the importance of helping individuals identify fruits such as mangos that can be readily incorporated into their diets for greater variety.” The research studied the diets of about 29,000 people. In addition, mango-eaters had lower levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, which is linked to heart disease.

 R&M Preserves
 R&M Preserves started in 1970  now with a spin on a classic Philippine product:  chocolate- covered dried mangoes range of tropical juices, mango juice concentrates and mango puree.
The company’s latest innovation, R&M’s Choco Mangga, has taken the humble dried mango to a new level. Choco Mangga is made of chewy mango strips   in velvety chocolate.
Mango mania is back at Lulu 

The yummiest varieties of the nutrient-rich, tropical yellow mango fruit at the Lulu Hypermarkets across the country. More than 100 varieties of mangoes varying from Alfonsos to Langdas, from 10 countries are for a
grab at the Lulu as part of the ten-day ‘Mango Mania’ which aims to promote mangoes and mango products from different parts of the world. 
  It was opened by J S Mukul, the Ambassador of India to Oman on June 1 in the presence of key personalities and other Lulu officials and well- wishers at its Bausher outlet. The 6th edition of the Lulu Mango Mania features the golden hued juicy fruit in all its shapes and sizes. The mangoes displayed comprise of the traditional favourites as well as the home grown varieties from Oman. 
  Since India is one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes world over, people can expect to see most varieties from there. ‘Alphonso’ type from India and Kesar varieties, which are known for their uniqueness, will also be making their presence. Chausa, Safeda, Langda, Totapuri and several others will further make an appearance at the fiesta. A major idea behind holding this annual fest is to educate and entertain people in order for them to learn about ‘King of Fruits’.

  Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag)
Aloe
Amala
Anar (Pomegranate)
Ashwagandha
Ashoka Tree
Arjuna tree (Terminalia)
Aromatic and Medicinal Plants
Bael
Banyan tree
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
Bitter gourd a medicine
Cinnamon
Coriander (Dhania)
Clove Plant
Fenugreek (Methi)
Gilloy (Tinospora Cordifolia)
Gokharu (Tribulus terrestris)
Guar
Guggul (Indian bdellium )
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Ginseng
Grape
Insulin Plant (Costus Ingneus)
Isabgol
Jatropha curcas
Jojoba Plant
Karonda (Carissa carandas)
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)
Kutki (Picrorhiza kurroa)
 

Malabar Nut (Adusa))
Mushroom
Mango
Mulhati ( Liquorice)
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Mentha
Neem:
Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
Parthenium Hystrophorous
Peepal Tree
Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa)
Pumpkin
 
Rose
Rosemary (Rosmarinus)
Rauvolfia serpentina 
Safed musli ( Chlorophytum borivilianum)
Sarsaparilla (Anantamul)
Shatavari (Asparagus0 
Sahijan (Moringa oleifera)
Sweet Neem (Murraya koenigii)
Tamarind (Imli)
Tulsi (Holy Basil)
 

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