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 Mango (आम) the fruit and medicine   Page 1

 Common Name
 Mango Plant
 Varieties of Mangos
 Plantation and Cultivation
 History of Mango
 Chemical Compounds in Mango
 Uses of Mango
 Medicinal Properties
 Diseases and paste
 Storage and Trading
 Mango seeds and Food value
 Mango Recipe
 Technique makes mango trees bear earlier
 New hybrid mango varieties
 Sugar-free mangoes
 Modern Research


   Mango fruit

 Mango is called the king of all fruits because of its rich, luscious, aromatic flavor and a delicious taste in which sweetness and acidity are delightfully blended. It is the most popular and the choicest fruit and occupies a prominent place among the fruits of the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) reports that the mango is "considered indigenous to eastern Asia, Myanmar (Burma), and Assam state of India". Now mango is cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world.

  Mangoes are juicy with a sweet taste and high water content. The fruit flesh of a ripe mango is very sweet, with a unique taste. In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (called Ras) and the ripe mango is used in the preparation of a dish. Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. Mango is an  excellent overall nutritional source, rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates. The mango is also very rich in medicinal properties

   Common Name

 Botanical name:       Mangifera indica Linn
 Latin name:              Mangifera Indica
 English name :         Mango
 Sanskrit:                  Amrah
 Hindi:                       Aam (आम)
 Marathi:                   Amba
 Tamil:                      Mamaram
 Telgu:                      Mamidi
 Malayalam               Mavu
 Kannada:                 Mavu
 French                    Mangue
 German                  Mango
 Italian                     Mango
 Spanish                  Manguey


  Mango Plant

      Mango tree

Mangoes may help lower blood sugar

  The mango tree is an erect approximately 30 to 100 ft (10-30 m) high, with a broad, rounded canopy  In deep soil, the taproot descends up to a depth of 20 ft. The tree is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old and still fruiting. The leaves are evergreen and alternate leaves are borne at the tips of the branches. The new leaves, appearing periodically and irregularly on a few branches at a time, are yellowish, pink, deep- rose or wine- red, becoming dark- green and glossy above, lighter beneath. Full- grown leaves may be 4 to 12.5 in (10-32 cm) long and 3/4 to 2 1/8 in (2-5.4 cm) wide.

 The mango tree. is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old. The leaves are evergreen and the flowers are yellowish or reddish. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white or yellowish or reddish flowers with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley.

 There is great variation in the form, size, color and quality of the fruits. They may be nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong, or somewhat kidney-shaped, often with a break at the apex, and are usually more or less lop-sided. They range from 6.5 to 25 cm in length and from a few grams to more than 2 kg. The skin is leathery, waxy, smooth, fairly thick, aromatic and ranges from light-or dark-green to clear yellow, yellow-orange, yellow and reddish-pink, or some variation, when fully ripe. Some have a "turpentine" odor and flavor, while others are richly and pleasantly fragrant. The flesh ranges from pale-yellow to deep-orange.

  Varieties of Mangos

     Mango king

 Mango King ; Alphonzo mango

   There are as many as 1365 varieties of mango all over the world. Over 1000  varieties of mango have been described in India. Perhaps some are duplicates by different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. Some famous varieties are:   

  'Bombay Yellow' ('Bombai')–high quality , 'Malda' ('Bombay Green'),  ' 01our' (polyembryonic)–a heavy bearer,  'Pairi' ('Paheri', 'Pirie', 'Peter', 'Nadusalai', 'grape', 'Raspuri', (Goha bunder) , 'Safdar Pasand' 'Suvarnarekha'  (Sundri),  'Langra' , 'Rajapuri' ,  'Alampur Baneshan'–high quality but shy bearer 'Alphonso' ('Badami', 'gundu', 'appas', 'khader')–high quality, 'Bangalora'('Totapuri', 'collection', 'kili-mukku', abu Samada' in the Sudan)–of highest quality, 'Banganapally' ('Baneshan', 'chaptai', 'Safeda')–of high quality, 'Dusehri' ('Dashehari aman', 'nirali aman', 'kamyab')–high quality, 'Gulab Khas',  'Zardalu' , 'K.O. 11',  'Rumani' , 'Samarbehist' ('Chowsa', 'Chausa', 'Khajri')–high quality 'Vanraj',  'K.O. 7/5' ('Himayuddin' ´ 'Neelum') , 'Fazli' ('Fazli malda')–high quality, 'Safeda Lucknow'   'Mulgoa'–high quality, 'Neelum'

  Plantation and Cultivation

  Climate: The mango is naturally adapted to tropical lowlands between 25°N and 25°S of the Equator and up to elevations of 3,000 ft (915 m). It is grown as a dooryard tree at slightly cooler altitudes but is apt to suffer cold damage. The best climate for mango has rainfall of 30 to 100 in (75-250 cm) in the four summer months (June to September) followed by 8 months of dry season.

  Soil: The mango tree is not too particular as to soil type, providing it has good drainage.  Rich, deep loam certainly contributes to maximum growth, but if the soil is too rich and moist and too well fertilized, the tree will respond vegetative but will be deficient in flowering and fruiting. The mango performs very well in sand, gravel, and even oolitic limestone.

 Propagation: Mango trees grow readily from seed. Germination rate and vigor of seedlings are highest when seeds are taken from fruits that are fully ripe, not still firm. Seeds of polyembryonic mangos are most convenient for local and international distribution of desirable varieties. However, in order to reproduce and share the superior monoembryonic selections, vegetative propagation is necessary. Inarching and  approach- grafting are traditional in India. Tongue-, saddle-, and root-grafting (stooling) are also common Indian practices.

 Dwarfing: Reduction in the size of mango trees would be a most desirable goal for the commercial and private planter. In India, double-grafting has been found to dwarf mango trees and induce early fruiting.

 Culture: About 6 weeks before transplanting either a seedling or a grafted tree, the taproot should be cut back to about 12 in (30 cm). Inasmuch as mango trees vary in lateral dimensions, spacing depends on the habit of the cultivar and the type of soil, and may vary from 34 to 60 ft (10.5-18 m) between trees. Closer planting will ultimately reduce the crop. The young trees should be placed in prepared and enriched holes at least 2 ft (60 cm) deep and wide, and 3/4 of the top should be cut off.

  Harvesting: Mangos normally reach maturity in 4 to 5 months from flowering. Fruits of "smudged" trees ripen several months before those of untreated trees. The fruits will be larger and heavier even though harvested 2 weeks before untreated fruits.

 Blooming and Pollination: Mango trees less than 10 years old may flower and fruit regularly every year
Thereafter, most mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. In most of India, flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March. Mango flowers are visited by fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and various bugs seeking the nectar and some transfer the pollen but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs.

   History of Mango

  Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th century BC. By the 10th century AD, they were transported to East Africa  and subsequently introduced to Brazil, West Indies and Mexico, where climate allows its appropriate growth.

  The origins of mango are thought to have been from a plant from Malaysia, India and Indonesia. It probably was grown in southeast Asia before the seventh century, although the only references found are from Cambodia. The 14th century Muslim traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.

  Mango is now widely cultivated as a fruit tree in frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is now cultivated in southern China, Malaysia, Indonesia, warmer parts of Australia, Philippines, Hawaii, and West Indies, Madagascar and along the coast of tropical Africa. In North America, it is grown to a limited extent in Florida and California. In Bangladesh Mango occupies about 60% area under fruits.

  Chemical Compounds in Mango

  Analysis of the edible flesh (per 100gms.) of the green mango gave the following average values: moisture 87.5; minerals 0.4; fibre 1.2; energy, 44k calorie; protein 0.7, fat 0.1; carbohydrates 20.1grms. calcium 10; iron 5.4; vitamin B-1, 0.04; vitamin B-2, 0.01; vitamin-C 3 mgs. and carotene (as vitamin A) 90 ugm. Ripe mango: moisture 78.6; mineral matter 0.4; fibre 0.7; energy, 90 k calorie; protein 1.0; fat 0.7; and carbohydrates 20.0 grms.; calcium 16; iron 1.3; vitamin B-1, 0.10; vitamin B-2, 0.07; vitamin C 41mgs. and carotene 8,300 ~lgm/l00grms. 

 The fruit is a rich source of potassium. Analysis of pulp ash (ash content, 0.53%) gave the following values; 47.37; calcium 6.38; magnesium 1.62; phosphors 6.49; Sulphur 3.67; chlorine 3.88/g. Analysis of mangoes gave the following ranges of vitamin (other than vitamin A) values: thiamine, 40.82130.50 ugm; riboflavin, 89.39-198.20 ugm; niacin, 1.38-6.27mg.; and ascorbic acid, 4.38-39.96 mg/l00g.

  Uses of Mango

  Mangoes are widely used in chutney, which is usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hot chilis or limes. In India, ripe mango is often cut into thin layers, desiccated , folded, and then cut and sold as bars that are very chewy known as amavat or halva. Dried unripe mango used as a spice and is known as amchur or amchoor in India and ambi in Urdu.

 Mango juice may be spray-dried and powdered and used in infant and invalid foods, or reconstituted and drunk as a beverage. The dried juice, blended with wheat flour has been made into "cereal" flakes, A dehydrated mango custard powder has also been developed in India, especially for use in baby foods. Half-ripe or green mangos are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce. Ripe mangos frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers.

  Mango is an excellent overall nutritional source rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates. It contains diverse essential vitamins and minerals, many of which are particularly high in content. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9%, respectively. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include numerous carotenoids, polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and xanthone, mangiferin etc.



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