Harvesting: Mangos normally reach maturity in 4 to 5 months from flowering. Fruits of "smudged" trees ripen several months before those of untreated trees.
The fruits will be larger and heavier even though harvested 2 weeks before untreated fruits.
Blooming and Pollination: Mango trees less than 10 years old may flower and fruit regularly every year.
Thereafter, most mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. In most of India, flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March.
Mango flowers are visited by fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and various bugs seeking the nectar and some transfer the
pollen but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs.
History of Mango
Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years
and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th century BC. By the 10th century AD, they were transported to East Africa and
subsequently introduced to Brazil, West Indies and Mexico, where climate allows its appropriate
The origins of mango are thought to have been from a plant from Malaysia, India
and Indonesia. It probably was grown in southeast Asia before the seventh century, although the only references found are from Cambodia. The 14th century
Muslim traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.
Mango is now widely cultivated as a fruit tree in frost-free tropical and warmer
subtropical climates throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is now cultivated in southern China, Malaysia, Indonesia, warmer parts of Australia, Philippines, Hawaii, and
West Indies, Madagascar and along the coast of tropical Africa. In North America, it is grown to a limited extent in Florida and California.
In Bangladesh Mango occupies about 60% area under fruits.
Chemical Compounds in Mango
Analysis of the edible flesh (per 100gms.) of the green mango gave the following average values:
moisture 87.5; minerals 0.4; fibre 1.2; energy, 44k calorie; protein 0.7, fat 0.1; carbohydrates 20.1grms. calcium 10; iron 5.4;
vitamin B-1, 0.04; vitamin B-2, 0.01; vitamin-C 3 mgs. and carotene (as vitamin A) 90 ugm. Ripe mango: moisture 78.6; mineral matter 0.4; fibre 0.7; energy, 90 k calorie; protein 1.0; fat 0.7; and
carbohydrates 20.0 grms.; calcium 16; iron 1.3; vitamin B-1, 0.10; vitamin B-2, 0.07; vitamin C 41mgs. and carotene 8,300 ~lgm/l00grms.
The fruit is a rich source of potassium. Analysis of pulp ash (ash content, 0.53%) gave the following values; 47.37; calcium 6.38; magnesium 1.62;
phosphors 6.49; Sulphur 3.67; chlorine 3.88/g. Analysis of mangoes gave the following ranges of vitamin (other than vitamin A) values: thiamine, 40.82130.50 ugm; riboflavin,
89.39-198.20 ugm; niacin, 1.38-6.27mg.; and ascorbic acid, 4.38-39.96 mg/l00g.
Uses of Mango
Mangoes are widely used in chutney, which is usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hot chilis or limes. In India, ripe mango is often
cut into thin layers, desiccated , folded, and then cut and sold as bars that are very chewy known as amavat or halva. Dried unripe mango used as a spice and is known as amchur or amchoor in India and ambi in Urdu.
Mango juice may be spray-dried and powdered and used in infant and invalid foods, or reconstituted
and drunk as a beverage. The dried juice, blended with wheat flour has been made into "cereal" flakes, A dehydrated mango custard powder has also been developed
in India, especially for use in baby foods. Half-ripe or green mangos are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for
jelly, or made into sauce. Ripe mangos frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar and quick-frozen in moisture-proof
Mango is an excellent overall nutritional source rich in dietary fiber and
carbohydrates. It contains diverse essential vitamins and minerals, many of which are particularly high in content. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E
comprise 25%, 76% and 9%, respectively. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B
vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as
carotenoids, polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include numerous carotenoids,
polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and xanthone, mangiferin etc.
All parts of the mango plant from the seeds and flowers to the leaves and gum are used in traditional South Asian medicine, but the fruits are most important.
The mango is very rich in medicinal properties. The root and bark are acrid; cooling; astringent to the bowels. The leaves are acrid; astringent to the
bowels cure "vata", "pitta", and "kapha" according to Ayurveda. The flowers are cooling and astringent to the bowels; improve taste and
appetite; cause "vita"; cure leucorrhoea, bad blood; good in dysentery, bronchitis, biliousness, urinary discharges. The unripe fruit is acrid,
sour, tasty; cures "vata", "kapha", biliousness, "tridosha", blood impurities; astringent to the bowels; cures
thought troubles, ulcers, dysentery, urinary discharges, vaginal troubles.
Increases immunity : According physicians, it strengthens and
invigorates all the nerves, tissues and muscles in the brain, heart and other parts of the body. It cleans the body from within and helps to improve immunity.
Provides protection against cancer: Mangoes are rich in dietary
fibre, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoids (an antioxidant compound). It has been found that mangoes have qualities
that can protect against colon, breast and prostate cancers as well as from leukaemia.
Maintain good vision: Mangoes are rich source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene
and beta-cryptoxanthin. These compounds are antioxidants and can help in improving and maintaining good vision.
Control blood pressure: Fresh mangoes are a good source of potassium. Potassium is an important component of the cell and body fluids.
It also helps to control the heart rate and blood pressure.
Improves skin and complexion: Mangoes are rich with Vitamin A,
providing the body with an essential nutrient to maintaining healthy skin and complexion as well as the integrity of the mucus membranes.
Protects from heart disease: Mangoes are also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Vitamin C helps the body
to develop resistance against infections and scavenges harmful free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also helps
helps to protect the heart from coronary artery disease and stroke.
Prevents anemia: The fruit contains moderate amounts of copper.Copper is an essential co-factor for the proper function of many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide
dismutase. Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells.
The unripe fruit is said to be useful in ophthalmic and emptions, and the seeds in asthma.
The ripe fruit is considered laxative, and therefore much prized by persons labouring under habitual constipation. The bark and the kernel are known as astringent and used in
hemorrhage, diarrhea and other discharges. The juice of the kernel, if snuffed, can stop nasal bleeding. The kernel is also
described as an anathematic and containing a large quantity of gallic acid, highly useful in bleeding piles and
The unripe fruit roasted, dissolved in water and made into
syrup with sugar is freely taken by the Indians to prevent sunstroke. Unripe mangoes toasted and made into syrup form a reputed remedy for heat apoplexy.
The dried kemel of the ripe fruit is used in native India as an astringent in diarrhea. The gum of the mango tree is used for cracked feet with good effect.
Ripe mango is a suitable choice for hypertensive patients as it is a good source of potassium and only
contains traces of sodium. The mango is highly recommended for pregnant women and individuals suffering from anemia because of its iron content.
Mango helps the skin become softer, gives it a shining glow and is effective in opening clogged skin pores.
Mango contains a large amount of tryptophan, the precursor to the 'happiness-hormone' serotonin. Mango products are a good complementary food for children of weaning age
as they contain necessary vitamins. Mango improves the appetite and is an effective antidote for various body toxins.
Mango juice helps prevent mental weakness and improves concentration and memory. In the Ayurvedic text
Bhavaprakasa, a syrup from the juice of the ripe fruit, sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic.
Mango leaves have anti-inflammatory, diuretic and cardio tonic
properties. Dried and powdered mango leaves are a good treatment for
excreting renal stones and improving hair growth. Mango leaves are also an effective treatment for burns.
Mango bark is effective in treating hemoptysia, hemorrhaging, nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, rheumatism and diphtheria.
A decoction of mango bark added to one gram of black salt helps treat diarrhea.
Mango root paste can reduce fever when applied to the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Dried mango seed is a good toothpaste. It strengthens the gums and helps in curing dental problems like pyorrhea and halitosis.
Diseases and paste
The fruit flies, Dacus ferrugineus and D. zonatus, attack the mango in India.
mango seed weevils, Sternochetus (Cryptorhynchus) mangiferae and S. gravis, are major pests, undetectable until
the larvae tunnel their way out. The leading predators of the tree in India are jassid hoppers (Idiocerus spp.) variously attacking trunk and branches or
foliage and flowers, and causing shedding of young fruits. The mango-leaf webber, or "tent caterpillar", Orthaga euadrusalis, has become a
major problem in North India.
One of the most serious diseases of the mango is powdery mildew (Oidium
mangiferae), which is common in most growing areas of India. The fungus affects the flowers and causes young
fruits to dehydrate and fall, and 20% of the crop may be lost. It is controllable by regular spraying. A number of organisms in India cause white sap, heart rot, gray blight, leaf
blight, white pocket rot, white spongy rot, sap rot, black bark and red rust.
Powdery mildew: Powdery mildew is one of the most damaging
diseases that affects mango trees. The white powder that is the primary symptom of the disease can cover leaves, flowers or fruit and eventually
cause early fruit drop and crop loss. Spray affected trees with a 0.2 percent solution of wettable sulfur. Fifteen days later, spray with 0.1
percent mixture of tridemorph. And then 15 days after that, treat the trees with a 0.1 percent mixture of dinocap.
Anthracnose: Anthracnose is another common disease of mango trees.
This disease can produce leaf spots, kill young blossoms, shoots and branches and even rot fruit. As soon as you spot anthracnose on your
mango tree's blossoms, spray the tree with two treatments of a 0.1 percent mixture of bavistin at 15-day intervals. To treat
anthracnose spray it with a 0.3 percent copper fungicide solution.
Die back: Die back first darkens bark. As the disease progresses,
twigs and branches wither and dry and the leaves drop off the tree. Treatment for die back is most effective when the disease is caught
during the bark darkening stage. To treat die back, prune the affected branches two inches past the affected section. Then spray the entire
tree with a 0.3 percent solution of copper oxychloride.
Bacterial canker: Canker disease attacks several varieties of
mango and can cause leaf and fruit drop, total crop loss and even storage rot. The disease appears as moist "boils"
that later turn into cankers. If caught early, bacterial canker can be controlled with three treatments of a 100ppm
solution of streptocycline or Agrimycin-100 given at 10-day intervals.
Red rust: Red rust disease is caused by an alga that manifests
early as greenish gray spots on the leaves that eventually turn into in rusty-looking red spots. leaf surface, leaving a creamy white mark at the original rust spot. The
disease can be reduced by supply of balanced nutrients to the plants and two sprays of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or Copper oxychloride (0.3%)
at 15 days interval.
Sooty mold disease: Sooty mold forms on the residue of insects
like aphids, scale insects and mealy bugs that excrete sticky residue onto the leaves. Sooty mold will continue to recur unless you get rid of
the underlying pest problem. In the meantime, prune the affected foliage.
Storage and Trading
In India, mangos are picked quite green to avoid bird damage and the dealers
layer them with rice straw in ventilated storage rooms over a period of one week. Quality is improved by controlled temperatures between 60° and 70° F (15°
-21° C). Ethylene treatment causes green mangos to develop full color in 7 to 10 days
depending on the degree of maturity, whereas untreated fruits require 10 to 15 days. One of the advantages is that there can be fewer pickings and the fruit
color after treatment is more uniform. Washing the fruits immediately after harvest is
essential, as the sap which leaks from the stem bums the skin of the fruit making black lesions that lead to rotting.
Some cultivars, especially 'Bangalora', 'Alphonso', and 'Neelum' in India, have
much better keeping quality than others. In Bombay, 'Alphonso' has kept well for 4 weeks at 52° F (11.11° C); 6 to 7 weeks at 45° F (7.22° C). Storage at lower
temperatures is detrimental inasmuch as mangos are very susceptible to chilling injury.
In India, large quantities of mangos are transported to distant markets by rail. To avoid excessive heat buildup and consequent spoilage, the fruits, padded with
paper shavings, are packed in ventilated wooden crates and loaded into ventilated wooden boxcars.
Green seedling mangos, harvested in India for commercial preparation of chutneys
and pickles as well as for table use, are stored for as long as 40 days at 42° to 45° F (5.56°-7.22° C) with relative humidity of 85% to 99%. Some of these may
be diverted for table use after a 2-week ripening period at 62° to 65° F (16.67° 18.13° C).
Mango seeds and Food value
The fresh kernel of the mango seed (stone) constitutes 13% of the weight of the
fruit, 55% to 65% of the weight of the stone. The kernel is a major by-product of the mango-processing industry. After soaking to dispel the astringency
(tannins), the kernels are dried and ground to flour which is mixed with wheat or rice flour to make bread and it is also used in puddings.
The kernel of the mango seed (stone)
The fat extracted from the kernel is white, solid like cocoa butter and tallow,
edible, and has been proposed as a substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate. The peel constitutes 20% to 25% of the total weight of the fruit. Researchers
have shown that the peel can be utilized as a source of pectin.
Indian analyses of the mango kernel reveal the amino acids–alanine, arginine,
aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine,
valine, at levels lower than in wheat and gluten. Tannin content may be 0.12-0.18% or much higher in cultivars.
By processing mango pits instead of throwing them away, one University
of Alberta researcher discovered a novel way to preserve food—and potentially combat dangerous bacterial infections such as
Listeriosis. An outbreak of the illness last year in Canada left at least 21 people dead, making the findings published recently in the "Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry" particularly timely, and promising.
India, with 2,471,000 acres (1,000,000 ha) of mangos (70% of its fruit-growing
area) produces 65% of the world's mango crop–9,920,700 tons (9,000,000 MT). India far outranks all other countries as an exporter of
processed mangos, shipping 2/3 of the total 22,046 tons (20,000 MT). Mango preserves go to the same countries receiving the fresh fruit and also to Hong
Kong, Iraq, Canada and the United States. Following India in volume of exports are Thailand, 774,365 tons (702,500 MT), Pakistan and Bangladesh, followed by
Brazil. Mexico ranks 5th with about 100,800 acres (42,000 ha) and an annual yield of approximately 640,000 tons (580,000 MT). The Philippines have risen to
6th place. Tanzania is 7th, the Dominican Republic, 8th and Colombia, 9th. Leading exporters of fresh mangos are: the Philippines, shipping to Hong Kong,
Singapore and Japan; Thailand, shipping to Singapore and Malaysia; Mexico, shipping mostly 'Haden' to the United States, 2,204 tons (2,000 MT), annually,
also to Japan and Paris; India, shipping mainly 'Alphonso' and 'Bombay' to Europe, Malaya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; Indonesia, shipping to Hong Kong and
Singapore; and South Africa shipping (60% 'Haden' and 'Kent') by air to Europe
and London in mid-winter. Chief importers are England and France, absorbing 82% of all mango shipments.
Yield: The yield varies with the cultivars and the age of the tree. At 10 to 20 years, a
good annual crop may be 200 to 300 fruits per tree. At twice that age and over, the crop will be doubled. In Java,, old trees have been known to bear 1,000 to 1,500 fruits in a season.
Some cultivars in India bear 800 to 3,000 fruits in "on" years and, with good cultural attention, yields of 5,000 fruits have been reported.
The seed inside peach is already being processed for oil in the cosmetics industry. When the seed of peach, which is much smaller than
mango kernels and therefore yields much less oil is being commercially exploited, then why not mango kernel?
An average mango kernel contains about 8% to 15% extract potential (butter and oil).
Mangoes can help fight flab: study
Eating a few mango verities could help you lose weight, but only if you eat the skin you normally throw away, Australian researchers have claimed.
Advising that while eating the wrong variety of this fruit could have the opposite effect.
University of Queens land scientists have found the skins of the common
Irwin and Nam Doc Mai varieties contain compounds that inhibit the formation of human fat cells.
On contrary, the skin of the Kensington Pride mango has compounds that promote fat cell growth, a media report said. Mike Gidley said lab tests
involved exposing human fat cells to extracts from the skin and flesh of three varieties. He said there was a long way to go, but the findings opened up the possibility of a
supplement that could help fight obesity. "The next stage is to identify the useful molecules in the peel that
inhibited fat cell formation," Gidley said.
Amchoor, the mango powder
Amchur (or Amchoor) is a uniquely Indian spice made by powdering dried
green (unripe) mango flesh. It gives tart acidic flavor to many Indian
dishes. Amchoor is made from green, unripe mangos, which are sliced, sun-dried and ground into a fine powder.
Amchoor has a pleasant sweet-sour aroma of dried fruit, astringent, but also sweet fruity flavour. The spice adds sour taste like tamarind. Infact it
has qualities as lemon or lime juice. Interestingly amchoor powder is made only in India.
Storage isn't much of a problem for this spice except for that it should
not be kept near strong smelling spices like cinnamon or bay leaf, which would affect the flavor.
It has a cooling effect and is great for
digestion. Infect it is added to some of the summer drinks for the same
reason.The chef's stronghold being Goan dishes usually adds amchoor in
a lot of dishes he prepares,
Alphonsos worth Rs 45 lakh sold at 12-day city mango festival in 2012
A 12-day-long Alphonso mango festival in May 2012, organized to provide naturally ripened Alphonso mangoes to Nashikites, received an
overwhelming response in the city, with around 25,000 dozen Alphonso mangoes worth Rs 45 lakh being sold.
The festival, which was organized by the Konkan Udyog Paryatan Vikas
Kendra (KUPVK), was held at the hall of the CBS branch of the Nashik
District Central Co-operative Bank (NDCCB). Datta Bhalerao,
office- bearer of the KUPVK, said, "We received a very good response from consumers in Nashik. Around
25,000 dozen Alphonso mangoes, worth Rs 45 lakh, were sold during the 12-day festival. The aim behind organizing the exhibition was to make
original, naturally ripened mangoes available to the consumers from Nashik."
Apart from Alphonso, other varieties including Payari and Keshar were also put on sale. Prices were in the range of Rs 300 to
Rs 1,200 per dozen. Apart from mangoes, mango-related by-products were also available for sale. During the exhibition, consumers were educated
about recognizing, eating and preserving genuine Alphonso mangoes.
Mango kernel extracts are hidden treasures
Upto 3% to 12% of mango kernel oil is generally used in the manufacturing of mango-based lotions, creams,
balms, soaps and hair conditioners. Besides being an ingredient in the aforementioned
products, the oil can also be used in its pure form. The pure form is typically tossed into bathing water, the aroma of which awakens all the
senses, while the oil works its magic to rejuvenate the body.These extracts even have natural healing properties a la high oxidation, healing and regeneration.
Dermatologists recommend mango kernel oil to protect against ultraviolet radiation, to clear blemishes and wrinkles,
and to treat skin disorders like eczema. Besides this, it effectively treats dry skin, skin allergies, skin peeling and prevents stretch marks.
The mango kernel fat has good potential as a cocoa butter substitute. It has
good content of tocopherol, phytosterols and triterpenes which makes mango butter a functional cosmetic ingredient with
a potential as a natural supplement in cosmetic formulations.