Clove as Medicinal Herb
Other uses of Clove
Food value in Clove
Clove Side Effects
Cloves are the dried flower buds of an aromatic tree Cloves are used as a spice in cuisines all
over the world. Cloves are now harvested primarily in Indonesia , Madagascar , Zanzibar , Pakistan , Sri Lanka and in India
The medicinal properties of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing various
health ailments. Cloves have long been considered a home remedy in India for toothaches,
joint pains, indigestion, asthma, cough, skin disorders, headache, etc. These health benefits of clove can be attributed to its
antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, germicidal, rubefacient, stomachic and stimulant properties..
Hindi - Laung
English - Clove
Latin - Syzygium aromaticum
Sanskrit - Lavangam
Tamil - Kirampu
Kannada - Lavanga
Telugu - Lavangamu
Marathi - Lavanga
Bangla - Lavang
Indonesia - Cengkeih or cengkih
Cloves was one of the first spices to be
traded in world. It was imported into Alexandria in 176 CE. Clove were used in Southeast Asia for thousands of years and was regarded as a
panacea for almost all ills. It is recorded that Chinese officials in 266 BCE, would chew on cloves
to sweeten their breath before audiences with the emperor.
Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine. In North Indian cuisine, it is used in
almost all rich or spicy dishes as an ingredient of a mix named "garam masala", along with other spices.In Ayurvedic medicine it is
considered to have the effect of increasing heat in system, hence the
difference of usage by region and season.
In the US, it is often sold under the name of "chai" or "chai tea", as a way of differentiating it from other
types of teas sold in the US. In Mexican cuisine , cloves are best known as clavos de
olor". Due to the Indonesian influence, the use of cloves is widespread in the
Netherlands. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese
culture.And clove essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes.
Clove plant with leaves
The clove tree is an evergreen that grows to a height
ranging from 8–12 m, having large square leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The flower
buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green, after which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready for
collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.5–2 cm long, and consist of a
long calyx , terminating in four spreading sepals , and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the center.
The volatile clove oil containing up to 85% eugenol and acetyl eugenol, methyl salicylate,
pinene, and vanillin. It contain gum, tannins, flavonoids and sterols.
Eugenol comprises 72-90% of the essential oil extracted from cloves, and is the compound most
responsible for the cloves' aroma. Other important essential oil constituents of clove oil include acetyl
eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin ;crategolic acid; tannins, gallotannic acid , methyl salicylate; the flavonoids eugenin , kaempferol , and eugenitin
; triterpenoids like oleanolic acid , stigmasterol and campesterol ; and several sesquiterpenes.
Clove is a tropical plant and requires warm humid climate. Clove thrives in all
situations ranging from sea level upto an altitude of 1000 meters. Deep loamy soil with high humus content found in the forest region is best suited for its
cultivation. It grows satisfactorily on laterite soil, loamy and rich black soil having good drainage.
Nursery : Raised nursery beds are prepared on fertile soil with high Percentage of
organic matter. The beds norm ally measure one metre width and two to three metre length. Seeds should be placed flat at a depth of
about 2.5 cm with a spacing of 12 to 15 cm. Germination commences in about 10 to 15 days and completes by about 45 days. The slender and
delicate seedlings grow very slowly.
Planting: The site for
cultivation of clove should have good drainage since the crop cannot withstand water logging. It can be grown in coconut gardens of
midland. At higher elevations it can be mix cropped with pepper or coffee. Clove requires a location protected from wind. If the site
is open, wind breaks must be provided. Eastern and North Eastern hill slopes, well-drained valleys and riverbanks are ideal for clove cultivation.
Manure and Fertilizer: Cattle manure or compost @ 50 kg and bone meal or fish meal @ 2-5 kg
bearing tree per year can be applied. Organic manures can be applied as a single dose at the beginning of the rainy season in the trenches dug
around the trees. The recommended fertilizer dose for inorganic fertilizer is @40Gram urea,110gram super phosphate,and 80gram Murate of
potash in the initial stage.The dosage is progressively increased to 600gm urea,1560gm super phosphate and 1250gm Murate of potash.per year
for a grown up tree of 15 years or more .
Seedling wilt - The leaves of affected seedlings lose their natural lustre ,droop and ultimately
die.The root system and collar region of the seedling show varying degree of discolouration and decay. Since the infected plants promote
further spread of the disease,they are to be removed and the remaining seedlings should be treated with carbendazim+mancozeb mixture fungicide
by dissolving it as 2 gm per litre of water and then drenching the root
zone of the seedlings.
Leaf Rot- Leaf Rot is observed in mature trees and seedlings. The infection starts
as dark diffused patches at the leaf tip or margin and later the whole leaf rots,resulting in severe defoliation. The foliage of the affected
tree should be sprayed with carbendazim+mancozeb mixture or copper oxy
chloride by dissolving 2-3 gm in 1 litre of water , and spraying uniformly.
Leaf spot and bud shedding - The disease is characterized by dark brown spots with a yellow halo on
leaves .Such spots also appear on the buds resulting in their shedding.Prophylactic spray of Copper oxy chloride @3 gm per litre of
water can prevent the onset of this disease.
Stem borer- The stem borer infests the main stem of young trees at the basal
region. Spray the crop with Quinalphos around the borehole and inject the same into the borehole
after removing the frass. Swabbing the basal region of the main stem with
carbaryl and keep the basins of the tree free from weeds are
prophylactic measures for reducing the pest infestation.
Scale Insects - Many species of scale insects infests the clove seedlings in the nursery
and sometimes young plants in the fields. Spray of imidacloprid or triazophos can prevent this infestation.
Harvesting and Processing : Clover tree starts flowering from the fourth year of its planting in
fertile soils and good management conditions.But the full bearing stage
is reached by about the 15th year only.The flowering season varies from
September-October in the plains to December-January at high
altitudes. The unopened buds are harvested when they are plump and rounded and before they turn pink.At this stage ,they are less than 2 cm
long. The opened flowers are not valued as spice. Harvesting should be
done without damaging the branches, as it adversly affects the subsequent
growth of the tree. The harvested flower buds are separated from the clusters by hand and
spread in the drying yard for drying. the correct stage of drying is
reached when the stem of the bud is dark brown and rest of the bud islight brown in colour.Well dried cloves weigh about one third the weighof the fresh cloves.About 11000 to 15000 dried cloves weigh 1 kg .
Clove as Medicinal Herb
Cloves have medicinal value as well as adding flavor to food. Cloves are the unopened buds from the evergreen clove tree.
Cooks have cloves on their spice rack. cloves have been used as a medicine for more than 2,000 years.
To treat tooth and gum disease: Cloves have been used by dentists to treat tooth and gum disease. Cloves have antiseptic, disinfectant and germicidal properties. Clove oil is effective as a broad spectrum antibiotic.
dentists used powdered cloves to disinfect and treat tooth infections and treat gum disease.
Remedy bad breath: Oil of cloves can be used to remedy bad breath, not only because of its aromatic scent,
but because it kills germs that cause bad breath. To remove bad breath, chew Cloves.
Clove oil used as disinfect: Clove oil is effective for eradicating the fungus that caused athlete's foot. Several drops of clove oil diluted with garlic, olive or sesame oil can be dripped into the ear to disinfect ear canals and remedy the cause of ear infection. Diluted clove oil can be used topically to treat acne, wounds, scabies, insect bites and prickly heat.
Cloves Ease Pain and Inflammation: Cloves contain Eugenol, which relieves pain and inflammation. Clove oil can relieve toothaches and earaches. Clove oil spray has been used to help relieve bronchial inflammation and cough.
Clove improve blood circulation: Cloves have a stimulating effect and improve blood circulation. Clove oil can be made into a salve and rubbed into sore muscle and joints to relieve pain and increase blood flow to the tissues. The stimulating effect of cloves can ease headaches, clear the mind and reduce fatigue. Cloves may also ease
depression and anxiety. Application of a paste of clove also relives headache.
Clove tea ease morning sickness: Clove tea has been
used worldwide for digestive upset. Cloves are safe to use in pregnancy, and clove tea can ease the nausea and vomiting commonly referred to as morning sickness.
Clove relive gastric and intestinal gas: Cloves aid in digestion and can relive gastric and intestinal gas. The stimulative effect of the clove aids the metabolic processes of the body.
Clove tea ease coughs due to colds: Clove tea can ease coughs due to colds and upper respiratory infections.
Cloves have antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Clove tea can ease cough and bronchial spasms brought on by colds, upper respiratory infections.
Other uses of Clove
Cloves Repel Insects: Cloves can keep moths off your clothes due to a perticular small and taste. Clove oil works as an effective insect repellent when diluted with water in 1:10 ratio. Spray this solution to keep the insects at bay.
The essential oil is extracted by steam distillation and has numerous
uses, including as a preservative on microscope slides, a topical anesthetic, a flavouring in gargles and mouthwashs, and as a mild
germicidal in toothpastes, perfumes, and aftershaves.
Sucking on cloves is said to reduce temporarily the craving for alcohol and to help kick the tobacco habit.
Food value in Clove
Cloves have good nutritional value. Cloves are rich in manganese. Cloves contain significant amounts of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. Cloves are a good source of vitamins C and K, and to a lesser degree, vitamins A and B-complex. Cloves are also a great source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids.
Clove Side Effects
No side effect is found.
Tanzania, Indonesia, Madagascar, Comoro and Sri Lanka are the major
clove exporting countries. In recent years, world production of clove
averaged around 80,000 tonnes a year. Indonesia is the world`s biggest producer at 50,000-60,000 tonnes.
Sesquiterpene and eugenol compounds present in clove oil have shown
anti-tumor activity in animal models and may have similar benefits in humans as well. Whole cloves may also protect the healthy tissues and
cells from the harmful effects of chemotherapy drugs. Always consult a doctor before using cloves as part of cancer therapy.