Drying and Storage
Jojoba in Rajasthan
Jojoba (Simmodsia chinensis) is a perennial woody shrub native
to the semiarid regions of southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Now Jojoba is being cultivated in Israel and
Rajasthan to provide a renewable source of a unique high-quality oil. Much of the interest in jojoba worldwide is the result of the plant's ability to
survive in a harsh desert environment. The present production of jojoba oil is in the range of thousands of tons
per year. The major world producers are the United States and Mexico, with
considerable quantities of oil being exported to Japan and Europe. Most jojoba oil produced in the U.S. today is sold at a high price for use in
cosmetics and hair care products. As many as 300 products containing jojoba have
appeared in the U.S. in recent years.
Common Name: Jojoba
Latin Name : Simmondsia chinensis
Family : Simmondsiaceae
Other Names: goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush.
Jojoba is a woody evergreen shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that typically
grows to 1–2 m tall, with a broad, dense crown. The leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–4 cm long
and 1.5-3 cm broad, thick waxy glaucous gray-green in color. The flowers are small, greenish- yellow, with 5–6 sepals and no petals. The plant develops
one or a few long tap roots (up to 40 ft) that can supply water and minerals from far below the soil surface.
Jojoba fruit encloses up to tree seeds
Jojoba plantation in Fatehpur
(Sikar district), Rajasthan
Jojoba is usually dioecious (male and female flowers are borne on separate
plants). Female flowers are small, pale green and commonly solitary or in
clusters at the nodes. Male flowers are yellow, larger, and occur in clusters.
The Pollination occurs via wind or insect. The female plants produce seed from flowers pollinated by the male plants.
Jojoba leaves have an aerodynamic shape, ceating a spiral effect, which brings wind-born from the male flower
to the female flower. On North American farms and in Israel, pollination usually occurs during the months
of February and March. In Argentina, Peru, and Australia, pollination occurs during August and September.
The pollinated female flower becomes a hardened capsule, which contains one or more developing seeds. As the growing seed fills the capsule, the capsule wall becomes
progressively thinner until dried by the sun. The sun-dried capsule ultimately splits open, and the mature seed drops to the ground.
The fruit is a green capsule which encloses up to three seeds. When ripe (3 to 6
months after fertilization) the capsule splits and reveals the seed, which is
brown, wrinkled and about the size of a small olive (300 to 1,000 seeds/lb).
Seed production is generally limited until the fourth year of growth.
Jojoba Seeds color and shape are reminiscent of coffee beans, however far larger, and their sizes and shapes are not uniform.
Jojoba seed contains a light-gold colored liquid wax ester which is the primary storage lipid of the plant.
Jojoba is a perennial woody shrub native
to the semiarid regions of southern Arizona, southern California and
northwestern Mexico. Native Americans extracted the oil from jojoba seeds to treat sores and wounds
centuries ago. Collection and processing of seed from naturally occurring stands
in the early 1970s marked the beginning of jojoba domestication. In addition,
the ban on the importation of sperm whale products in 1971 led to the discovery that
jojoba oil is in many regards superior to sperm oil for applications in thecosmetics and other industries.
Much of the interest in jojoba worldwide is the result of the plant's ability to
survive in a harsh desert environment. The utilization of marginal land that
will not support more conventional agricultural crops could become a major
asset to the global agricultural economy. The major world producers are the United States and Mexico, with
considerable quantities of oil being exported to Japan and Europe.
Jojoba seed contains a light-gold colored liquid wax ester which is the primary
storage lipid of the plant. Jojoba wax (called oil) makes up 50% of the seed's dry weight.
The physical properties of jojoba oil are: high viscosity, high flash and fire point, high
dielectric constant, high stability and low volatility. Its composition is little affected by temperatures up to 570°F (300°C).
Jojoba oil contains straight- chained C20 and C22 fatty acids and alcohols and two unsaturated
bonds, which make the oil susceptible to many different types of chemical
manipulations. The extracted oil is relatively pure, non-toxic, biodegradable,
and resistant to rancidity. Jojoba oil has high boiling as well as freezing points.
It has high thermal stability, smoke, flash and fire points. Its decomposition point is 315 degree centigrade.
Jojoba bean oil contains 45 to 55 per cent oil or liquid wax, with chemical properties similar to those of the body fat obtained from sperm
whale. Jojoba seeds contain alpha, delta, and gamma tocopherols, all forms of vitamin E.
Jojoba is best suited to areas that are frost free and is not grown in the
northern midwest. When temperatures drop below 20°F, flowers and terminal
portions of young branches of most jojoba plants are damaged.
Soil: Most wild jojoba populations occur on coarse, light or medium textured soils
with good drainage and good water infiltration. Planting on heavy soil results
in later blooming, slower growth and more problems with fungal diseases.
Seed Preparation and Germination: Jojoba can be planted by direct seeding or by transplanting seedlings to
the field. Seed can be germinated in vermiculite or sand at about 80°F. Emergence occurs in 15 to 20 days,
and the seedlings are ready for transplanting when they are 6 to 12 in. tall (8 to 10
weeks). Emergence from direct-seeded fields occurs in 15 to 20 days. Propagation
from clones or from tissue culture is a more rapid method of varietal improvement.
Seeds are planted 1 in. deep, and emergence usually occurs within 20 days. The
soil should be kept moist but not wet through emergence. Individual seeds or seedlings are planted 12 to 18 in. apart in rows.
Keep the proper female and male ratio as 6:1.
Weed Control: Weeds must be controlled early in the establishment of the plantation.
Diseases and Their Control: On poorly drained soil, jojoba is susceptible to fungal wilts, including
Verticillium, Fusarium, Pithium and Phytopthora.
Insects Control: Some insects have been identified cause
known economic damage. Infestations of spider mites, grasshoppers, and thrips may result in yield losses.
Harvesting: All seeds on a jojoba shrub do not mature at the same time, and more than one
harvest may be necessary. Most jojoba is currently harvested by hand.
Drying and Storage
Jojoba seed that has been dried to around 10% moisture and protected from pest
damage will keep for several years.
Dehradun-based Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) has already conducted research on jojoba oil and has found that it can be used as an alternate fuel oil.
Jojoba oil and its derivatives have diversified uses in cosmetics,
pharmaceuticals, lubricants, food and confectioneries, electrical insulators, foam control agents, plansticisers, fire
retardants, leather industry and transformer oil.
The viscosity index of jojoba oil is much higher than that of
petroleum oil; therefore, it may be used as a high temperature, high pressure lubricant. The
stability of jojoba oil makes it attractive to the electronic and computer
industries. Since jojoba oil contains no cholesterol or triglycerides and is
not broken down by normal metabolic pathways, it may become an important low-calorie oil for human consumption. The oil can be used as an antifoam agent
in antibiotics production and as a treatment for skin disorders.
Jojoba in Rajasthan
The arid lands of Rajasthan are all set to usher in a evolution in Indian agriculture, with planned large-scale cultivation of the exotic jojoba plant
(Simmondsia Chinensis). Rajasthan government has allotted 110 hectare of
wastelands including 70 hectare at Fatehpur in Sikar district and 40 hectare at Dhand in Jaipur district for jojoba plantation.
Jojoba plantation project was formulated in 1995 for a period of five years, with a revised financial outlay of Rs 321.23 lakh to be met by central assistance.
Jojoba in the country is now being grown in an estimated area of about 335 hectare and the area is increasing every year. The production estimate for
this plantation is 25 million tonne. About 90 per cent of the jojoba cultivation is in
The Association of the Rajasthan Jojoba Plantation and Research Project
(AJROP) has already received bulk export orders from Guestav Heess Co of Germany for the supply of jojoba oil.
AJROP has recently supplied jojoba oil to a Kerala-based pharmaceutical company and Mahindra & Mahindra, Mumbai at a price of $40 per kg.
The global price for the supply of high-quality jojoba oil in small packs is around $90 per kg, while for bulk supplies the prices range between $13 to $40 per kg for different grades of oil.
The cost of development of jojoba plantation including tubewells is Rs 1 lakh per hectare. The cost-benefit ratio is 1:3.4 and IRR is 37 per cent. The cost of production of one kg of jojoba
in US is Rs 132, in Israel it is Rs 68 and in India it is Rs 20. This low cost of production in the country gives it a competitive edge. Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth
or fifth year after planting
Modern research are underway to examine whether jojoba oil can be used as a cooking medium. If these
researches are successful then the problem of India's dependence on imports of refined edible oils can be stopped.
Researchers noticed that traditional Red Indians cook and eat jojoba seeds and use its oil extracted by crude process. Jojoba oil can, thus, claim for its dual utility as both fuel oil and
Modern research has revealed that Jojoba seeds contain
simmondsins, monoglucosides, not found in any other plant species. They act as an appetite suppressant. A number of companies are currently working on ways of isolating the simmondsins for use as a dietary supplement