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  Introduction
  Varieties and hybrids
  Common Name
  Hibiscus plant
  Chemical Constituents
  Cultivation
  History
  Cultural and Religious importance
  Hibiscus as Medicinal plant
  Hibiscus uses
  Hibiscus Side effects
  Economics
  Recent research
 

  Introduction

  Hibiscus also known as is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology in the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or "China rose" is a beautiful, showy flower native to East Asia, mainly China. It is cultivated primarily as an ornamental plant. Plant breeders around the world have generated several varieties and hybrids of China Rose giving rise to an enormous array of colors and patterns within the species.
   Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves are used as a laxative, while the root is used in cough treatment. The flowers are considered to be aphrodisiac, emollient and emmenagogic and are used in bronchial catarrh, diarrhoea and fertility control. The flowers of H. rosa-sinensis, have been reported in the ancient Indian medicinal literature to have beneficial effects in heart diseases, mainly in ischemic disease. It has a high vitamin 'C' content, and has been used for centuries as a herbal remedy for high blood pressure. 
  Hibiscus tea is a powerful supplement that can lead to weight loss. A tea drunk for relaxation, health, celebrations and enjoyment. Hibiscus tea may also help to reduce the risk of heart disease and lower bad cholesterol.

   Hibiscus  flower           Hibiscus  plant

  Varieties and hybrids

  The  Hibiscus plant contains roughly 232 species and untold numbers of Varieties and hybrids. Several hundred species are known, such as - Hibiscis acapulcensis, Hibiscus acetosella, Hibiscus acicularis,  Hibiscus altissimus, Hibiscus andongensis, Hibiscus angolensis, Hibiscus archeri, ... etc. In temperate zones, probably the most commonly grown ornamental species is "Hibiscus syriacus", the common garden hibiscus, also known in some areas as the "Rose of Althea" or "Rose of Sharon" . In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.

 

   Common Name

  Common names of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in several countries is roselle. In China, there are several names for the
plant, with almost each state having a different name.
  Latin  -           Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
  Family -         Malvaceae
  English :        Hibiscus
  Sanskrit :      Gudhal (गुड़हल)
  Hindi :           Gudhal (गुड़हल)
  Kannada        DasavaLa ( ದಾಸವಾಳ)
  Malayalam     Chemparati  
  Tamil             Cembarutti (செம்பருத்தி)
  Marathi          Jaswand (जासवंद)
  Chinese :       Rose of China,( 
朱槿 , 扶桑 大红花 )
                 -     Roselle (
洛神葵 )
  Egypt :          Karkadé .
  West Africa : Bissap  .
  Mexico :       Flor de Jamaica 
  Brazil            Gongura

   Hibiscus plant

  All tropical hibiscus are evergreen, and leaf variation extends from the almost circular leaf to the very narrow, with many in between, while leaf margins can vary from smooth, or slightly serrated, to highly indented. The flower
classification from, red, brown, white and other colours. Hibiscus tree are generally found in four sizes of blooms: miniature (under 4 in, or 10 cm), medium (4-6 in/10-15 cm); large (6-8 in/15-20 cm), and extra large (8 in, or 20 cm, and over). Its leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers of Hibiscus plant are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals , color from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as "H. mutabilis" and "H. tiliaceus" changes with age. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule , containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours.  

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 Chemical Constituents

  The major chemical constituents in Hibiscus plant are Flavonoids, Flavonoid glycosides, Hibiscetin, Cyanidine, Cyanidin glucosides, Taraxeryl acetate, β-sitosterol, Campesterol, Stigmasterol, Ergosterol, Citric, tartaric and oxalic acids, Cyclopropenoids, Anthocyanin.  

 

   Cultivation

   For all varieties of Hibiscus plant the basic requirement for healthy growth are: sun and warmth, sharp drainage, ample moisture and nutrients. Growers now recognize three sizes: tall (6-10 ft/2-3 m), medium (3-6 ft/1-2 m), and low (under 3 ft, or 1 m), in  hibiscus culture the description refers to flower size, not shrub size. From the grower's point of view, the main consideration - apart from, obviously, choosing the varieties that most appeal- is the space and location for the intended plant. 
  Always plant out in spring season. A larger plant may need to have any long or heavy bud-bearing stems trimmed back before planting. Handle the roots gently, leaving the roots and clinging soil uppermost. Observe the spread of the roots: they spread out at the sides more than down at the center. The  planting hole should be wide and shallow, but well-dug and prepared deeply below, and mounded gently in the middle.
  It's important that grafted plants have the graft area kept clear of soil and mulch, so don't plant deeply. The shallow roots grow close to the surface. Cover lightly and then water well. While transplanting a long-established in-ground hibiscus to a new location, it will be necessary to prune it first by cutting back to about two-thirds. It should be watered very thoroughly a day or two before transplanting. Cover the roots, and water well.
   Hibiscus should be planted in the warmest part of the garden where they receive day-long sun. Sandy loam and good drainage is vital for the growth. Hibiscus requires high humidity, well-prepared sites that have friable, loamy, good-quality soil with a pH reading of about 6 to 7, and plenty of organic matter that is routinely replenished. Like all plants, hibiscus need nitrogen, calcium , phosphorus , potassium, magnesium and sulfur as well as trace elements. Good-quality soil that is regularly enriched with organic matter should contain all of these elements.

   History

  The Hibiscus plant have grown for centuries in Indian and Pacific oceans countries. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, an old species that was grown as an ornamental flower in China, is believed to have been cultivated there for hundreds,of years. It have been in cultivation throughout much of the Asian continent, early reports of H. rosa-sinensis flowering around temples in China imply a Chinese origin, hence the name "sinensis". Later the East African species H. schizopetalus, as well as H. cameronii -Hawaiian hybridists crossed and re-crossed them in an extensive program that produced a total of more than 5000 horticultural varieties. 
  Using Hibiscus flowers for tea has been universally popular throughout history in a great many cultures and was the drink preferred by the Pharoahs of Ancient Egypt, who drank Hibiscus tea to invigorate themselves in the desert heat. It is caffeine free with a distinct flavor, and has a lovely aroma.
   In the mid-20th century intensive hybridizing work was done in Florida, and from Hawaii to southeastern U.S.A. Later still, Australian horticulturists began trialing new cultivars with unprecedented success. By the 1980s there were over 4000 recognized tropical hybrids in cultivation. Today there are more than 10,000 hybrids worldwide. Throughout all of this breeding, H.rosa-sinensis remained the most important genetic parent

  Cultural and Religious importance

  In India, the red hibiscus flower is used as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship. Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the national flower of the Republic of Haiti.
    Hibiscus as Medicinal Herb
 
  In traditional medicine Hibiscus plant was originally used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. According to traditional medicine if we eat the buds of white hibiscus flowers early in the morning on empty stomach it should cure all the diseases. We can mix sugar if we are unable to eat directly. According to the traditional medicine, the flowers of white Hibiscus can be dried in the shade of neem tree. Then they can be powdered and it can be used to fight all cancers. 
  Heart diseases,  Hibiscus has antioxidant properties of flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins that can prevent the oxidation of Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL). These antioxidants also help control cholesterol levels and reduce heart disease.
 High Blood Pressure - Hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and hypertensive adults. 
.Eczema and Skin allergies - Hibiscus flower extracts are used in many herbal ointments in the treatment of eczema and skin allergic problems.
 Hair Care - Promotes Hair Growth and prevents premature hair Greying. Hibiscus stimulates blood circulation and ensures the supply of essential nutrients to the hair follicles. In case of dandruff and  hair loss, add coconut oil or sesame oil to a bunch of hibiscus flowers and leaves and  heat it. After cooling, strain the oil from the mixture and store in clean containers. Massage this oil on scalp and leave it for an hour and wash the hair with good shampoo. The natural oil in this flower acts as a good conditioner  This flower can be used also as natural dye for hair
 Fever - Hibiscus will help cool the body temperature down.
 Skin care;-  An extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
  Protect from infections: Hibiscus flowers are nutritious as they are a rich source of vitamin C, minerals and antioxidants. These nutrients protect the respiratory tract from infections. Even sore throat problems and cough can be cured by drinking this herbal tea.

   Hibiscus uses

   The fiber from Hibiscus plant stem is qualitative. This can be used in manufacturing of clothes, nets and paper. The ash obtained by burning the flower and leaves of this flower can be applied to eyebrows which glazes them black Jamaicans use this flower in herbal tea as it contains many minerals and vitamins. 
  The tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and flavor. In Jamaica and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel . The drink is popular at Christmas time. It is served cold, mixed with other herbs, roots, spices and cane sugar.Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring  Dried hibiscus is edible, and is often a delicacy in Mexico. 
  One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper -making. The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away. In Polynesia , these fibers are used for making grass skirts. They have also been known to be used to make wigs. Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs , and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds. 

   Hibiscus Side effects

   No measure side effects was observed using Hibiscus leaves or flowers.

   Economics

  The Hibiscus herb (foliage) used in hair care, skin care, Hibiscus tea and any medicinal uses. An extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis  has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Its market is based on demand.

    Recent research

    A 2008 USDA study shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an average drop of 8.1 mmHg in their systolic blood
pressure, compared to a 1.3 mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study participants with higher blood pressure readings (129 or above) had a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.2 mmHg. These data support the idea that drinking hibiscus tea in an amount readily incorporated into the diet may play a role in controlling blood pressure, although more research is required.
  A study by scientists at Chung Shan Medical University in Taiwan found out that the presence of antioxidants can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the body.

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