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Medicinal Plant Aloe (घृत कुमारी )

  

  Introduction
  Common Name
  History of Aloe
  Aloe Species
  Aloe  Plant
  Chemica l Constituents
  Cultivation
  Aloe  as Medicinal Herb
  Aloe Vera Health Benefit
  Aloe Vera products
  Sarees made from Aloe Vera fibre
  Aloe Side Effects
  Economics
  Modern Research
  References
  Aloe Vera Video

  Introduction

   Postal stamp on Aloe Vera

   Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The first written records about the use of aloe vera were found on over 6,000 years old clay tablets found in Mesopotamia. Today also aloe vera is one of the most studied plants worldwide. Actually, there is hardly any plant that can display such a great variety of scientifically-proven active pharmaceutical ingredients (about 200) whose unique combinations properties generate a broad spectrum of activity. Researchers are looking into its potential as an AIDS and cancer fighter.



   Aloe Vera is referred  as the ‘Miracle Plant’ and also known as "wand of heaven" by the native Americans. From being an antiseptic,  anti- inflammatory and a cure for heart burns to helping relieve the symptoms of severe illnesses like cancer and diabetes, to being a beauty aid and nourishes health, this ancient Indian herb has it all. Known for centuries for its unique medicinal properties, it has been rediscovered, recognized and benefited from in the last few years.

   Aloe Vera is as old as civilization and throughout history it has been used as a popular folk medicine. It is believed to be effective in treating stomach ailments, gastrointestinal problems, skin diseases, constipation, for radiation injury, for its anti-inflammatory effect, for wound healing and burns, as an anti-ulcer and diabetes. It is also known as ‘lily of the desert’, the ‘plant of immortality’, and the ‘medicine plant’ with qualities to serve as alternate medicine.

   Aloe is grown largely in South Texas, USA, Mexico, India, South America, Central America, Australia and Africa. It is commonly called Miracle plant, Healing plant, Plant of immortality, Fountain of youth. Aloe species are frequently cultivated as ornamental plants both in gardens and in pots being highly decorative. Some species, in particular Aloe vera are purported to have medicinal properties used in alternative medicines and in home first aid. In homeopathic medicine aloe is used for hemorrhoids.  In India Aloe Vera has been referred to as "kumari’ in Ayurvedic treatments. Some selected number of aloe species valued for their beauty and ornamental value.

Common Name

Latin  -          Aloe barbadensis Mill,  Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.
Family-         Aloeaceae,  Xanthorrhoeaceae
English -       Aloe vera ( Barbedolsaloes), Indian aloe
Hindi -          Ghritkumari (घृत कुमारी), gwar-patha
Sanskrit -      Kumari
Tamil    -       Kattalai
Kannada -     Kathaligidi
Telgu       -    Kalabanda 
Malayalam-   Kattuvala 
Marathi    -    Korafad
Bangla     -    Kumari
Gujarti     -    Kunwar
Arabic     -    Mussavar
Chinese  -:   芦荟

  Aloe vera plant

 Aloe Vera is the Miracle Plant,  Aloe Vera contains many vitamins including A, C, E, folic acid, choline, B1, B2, B3 (niacin), B6. Aloe Vera is also one of the few plants that contains vitamin B12. Some of the 20 minerals found in Aloe Vera as: calcium, magnesium, zinc, chromium, selenium, sodium, iron, potassium, copper, manganese.

Aloe vera plant is also known as ‘lily of the desert’, the plant of immortality’, and the ‘medicine plant’ with qualities to serve as alternate medicine. Aloe vera is commonly used in many cosmetic products and the rise of natural and organic beauty may constitute a new opportunity for this plant.

     Aloe vera gel

     Aloe Vera gel

   History of Aloe

   Ancient records of the Egyptians, Arab, African, Asians and Americans have discussed the different uses and pathological cases in which Aloes were administered. Aloe was cultivated in Egypt thousands of years ago and was used by the people of the Mediterranean at least 400 years before Christ. Aloe is also mentioned in the Bible's New Testament. The Arabs had taken Aloe vera plants to India and the Indian people called it savari, The Indians also named Aloe Ailwa from which the Greek word alon might have been derived. Aloe was also mentioned in ancient Chinese transcripts. It was employed medicinally for eczematous skin conditions in China and India under the name Luhui in China and Musabbar in India. The Greeks knew Aloe through the Indians. The Greek physician Peter Pedanius Dioscoriades wrote about Aloe in his medicinal plant collection materna medica. Aloe was first illustrated in the Codex Aniciae Julianae which was written around the year 512 A.D. by Dichotomous. Aloe was also mentioned in the writings of the Latin writer, Aurelius Celsus, who wrote a book about medicine and called it De Medicina, which appeared for the first time in the year 1378. In America, Aloe was mentioned in Columbus' journals.

   There have been mentions of the Aloe plant in the Rig Veda, which is the earliest book of natural medicine dating BCE 4,500 and BCE 1,600. In Rig Veda, Aloe Vera is specifically recommended for the reproductive system, liver and dealing with worms when injected or consumed. External uses included healing of wounds." A complete detail about its medicinal uses was also found in Papyrus ebers, an Egyptian document written in BCE 1,550. There were around 12 formulae given in this book to mix the Aloe Vera gel with other agents to solve skin and internal disorders. The early Egyptians revered aloe and called it the 'Plant of Immortality'.
  This may account for stories of its use by the two Egyptian Queens, Nefertiti and Cleopatra. They were both renowned for their beauty and were said to bathe in its juices. Cleopatra's handmaiden is also said to have mixed it into skin lotions to enhance her mistress's loveliness.

   Egyptians, who have a long relationship with Aloes, still grow the plants around graveyards to symbolize the patience which is to be exercised during the long suffering from losing the deceased person. Hindus in North India, practice the tradition of feeding their newborn children a little of Aloe mixed with honey in a golden spoon. Many of the drugs that contained Aloes  were made as : Hugh's Black Pills, Gloria Pills, Graziona Reducing Treatment, Mother Siegel's Curative Syrup and Tablet-45. Aloe vera, use is documented on over 6,000 old clay tablets found in Mesopotamia

  Aloe Species

   Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliacae and nearly there are about 150 species in Aloe vera. The common varieties are:  Aloe Barbadensis Miller, Aloe Saponaria, Aloe Chinensis, Aloe Variegata, Aloe Forex, Aloe Lalifolia and Curacao Aloe. Of these the most popular is Aloe Barbadensis Miller which has most therapeutic value and referred to as ‘True Aloe’.

  Aloe Plant

   Aloe is a stem less or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 80-100 cm tall, spreading by offsets and root sprouts. The leaves are lanceolate, thick and fleshy, green to gray-green, with a serrated margin. The flowers are produced on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2-3 cm long Its thick leaves contain the water supply for the plant to survive long periods of drought. These leaves have a high capacity of retaining the water.

   When a leaf is cut, a orange yellow sap drips from the open  end which has a very strong laxative effect. When the green skin of a leaf is removed a clear mucilaginous substance  appears that contain fibers, water and the ingredients to retain the water in the leaf. These ingredients give this  "gel" its special qualities as they are known now for many centuries. Among the uses for this gel are acceleration of  wound healing, use on skin burns, moisturizing dry skin and it is taken internally for peptic ulcers or gastritis.

  Aloe vera plant has the ability to survive for long periods without water. The Aloe Vera plant has double the photosynthetic properties of other plants. Because of this, it needs more exposure to sunlight than regular plants. It has thick layers around the leaves that protect it from drying out. Constant sun exposure is a very important when growing Aloe Vera. Aloe Vera is a succulent, and as such, stores a large quantity of water within its leaves and root system. The Aloe Vera root is very thin. The plant likes to search for water. Over watering will cause the thin roots to become saturated and rot.

   Aloe vera juice
   Aloe vera enhances skin health

   Aloe is one of the most widely-used ingredients in high-grade skin care products. Aloe soothes the skin, hydrates it, nourishes it, accelerates the regeneration of new skin tissue. (In fact, simply removing the gel from a living aloe vera leaf and placing the raw gel on your face is far superior to even the most expensive eye cream or skin care product on the market. Aloe also enhances skin health when used internally. Drink more aloe and your skin glows!.

   According to a study published in the Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry magazine, aloe vera, when applied topically, improves the levels of collagen. Aloe vera also protects your face from developing fine lines

 Farmers find fortune in  aloe vera

  A group of enterprising farmers in the semi-arid Maungu to township in Voi discovered that they can make a living from farming aloe.The aloe plant that grows well in arid and semi arid areas has now proved to be the wonder crop for these farmers. Their efforts have slowly begun to pay dividends.

   Aloe vera for Constipation:  The outer skin of the Aloe Vera plant - often called CAPE ALOE - is a strongly laxative herb. It is also very, bitter and unpleasant in taste and used only occasionally.

Chemical Constituents

   Aloe contains two classes of Aloins : (1) nataloins, which yield picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, and do not give a red coloration with nitric acid; and (2) barbaloins, which yield aloetic acid (C7H2N3O5), chrysammic acid (C7H2N2O6), picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, being reddened by the acid. This second group may be divided into a-barbaloins, obtained from Barbadoes aloes, and reddened in the cold, and b-barbaloins, obtained from Socotrine and Zanzibar aloes, reddened by ordinary nitric acid only when warmed or by fuming acid in the cold. Nataloin forms bright yellow scales. Barbaloin forms yellow prismatic crystals. Aloes also contain a trace of volatile oil, to which its odour is due.

  ;Aloe Vera contains 19 of the 20 amino acids required by the human body and 7 of the 8 essential amino acids (that the body cannot make), Aloe Vera contains also contain useful enzymes like Amylase, Bradykinase, Catalase, Cellulase, Lipase, Oxidase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Proteolytiase, Creatine Phosphokinase, Carboxypeptidase. Most of these are beneficial to human metabolism.

Cultivation

   Aloe Vera is relatively easy to care for in cultivation in frost-free climates. The species requires well-drained sandy potting soil in moderate light. If planted in pot or other containers ensure sufficient drainage with drainage holes. The use of a good quality commercial potting mix to which extra perlite, granite grit, or coarse sand are added is recommended. Alternatively, pre-packaged 'cacti and succulent mixes' may also be used. Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry prior to re-watering. During winter, Aloe may become dormant, during which little moisture is required. In areas that receive frost or snow the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses.

   Climate : Aloe is grown in warm tropical areas and cannot survive freezing temperatures. Hot climate suits the growth of Aloe Vera plants. Growing Aloe Vera plants in warm climates make them flourish and widely spread. Plant your Aloe Vera in full sun. During the winter months, the plant will become somewhat dormant. During this period watering should be minimal, allowing the soil to become completely dry.

  Soil: Aloe Vera can be cultivated on any soil for 'dry  land management', sandy loamy soil is the best suited for it. The soil should be moderately fertile and fast draining as Aloe Vera plant it self contains lot of water and it will wilt if the soil is not fast draining.

  ;Manures and fertilizers: The crop responds well to the application of farm yard manure and compost. During the first year of plantation, FYM @20 t/ha is applied at the time of land preparation and the same is continued in subsequent years. Besides vermicompost @2.5 tonnes/ha can also be applied.

   Propagation:  Aloe Vera is generally propagated by root suckers by carefully digging out without damaging the parent plant and planting it in the main field. It can also be propagated through rhizome cuttings by digging out the rhizomes after the harvest of the crop and making them into 5-6 cm length cuttings with a minimum of 2-3 nodes on them. Then they are rooted in specially prepared sand beds or containers. 

  ;The plant is ready for transplanting after the appearance of the first sprouts. The process of cultivating Aloe Vera involves the following process:
   The ground is to be carefully prepared to keep free from weeds and the soil is ideally kept ideally slightly acidic.  The soil should be supplied supplement in the form of ammonium nitrate every year. The plants are set spaced out by 31 inches in rows and between the rows. At that rate, about 5,000 plants are set per acre. An 8 - 12 inch aloe pop would take about 18 - 24 months to fully mature.

   The plants, in a year's time, would bear flowers that are bright yellow in colour. The leaves are 1 to 2 feet long and are cut without causing damage to the plant, so that it lasts for several years. 

  Plant protection:  Aloe is known to be infected by fungus causing leaf spot disease. This affects yield and quality of the gel adversely. The disease can be controlled by spraying recommended fungicides.

  Alloy Plant of immortality
    

  The healing properties of this plant have been recognized in Eastern and Greco-Roman civilizations. Ancient Greeks are known to have used it for
treating burns and wounds. Egyptians called it ‘the plant of immortality' and included it in the funerary gifts that they buried with the dead. The fleshy aloe Vera leaf contains a translucent gel which is used medicinally.
   Research has revealed that this succulent plant contains no less than 75 valuable constituents such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. No other natural product contains a large number of nutrients beneficial to humans.
 Aloe Vera based anti-frostbite cream
   DRDO`s Chief Controller (Research and Development) W. Selvamurthy said at the 99th edition of the Indian Science Congress held in Bhubaneshwar in January 7, 2011`a special Aloe Vera based anti-frostbite cream - Alocal - has been developed for soldiers deployed at higher altitudes. The medicine prevents frostbite and five lakh jars of that cream have already been supplied to the armed forces. 
 Aloe Vera jeans
 

 A new Anti-Cellulite Jeans Will Moisturize Your Dry-Ass Skin. Denim Spa Therapy For Legs by Wrangler are jeans "infused with moisturising and slimming ingredients." as Aloe Vera.
 The Aloe Vera jeans soothe sensitive skin. The Olive Extract denim moisturizes skin. And the Smooth Legs jeans, well, they will help with That For Which There Is No Cure: Cellulite.

YIELD

   The crop can be harvested 4 times a year. At the rate of 3 leaves cut from each plant, about 12 leaves are the harvest  per plant per year. On an average, the yield per acre annually is about 60,000 kg. Plants start yielding after eighteen months. Yield could be as high as 40 tones of thick fleshy leaves from one hectare plantation.

  The leaves cut off close to the plant are placed  immediately, with the cut end downwards, in a V-shaped  wooden trough of about 4 feet long and 12 to 18 inches deep. 
  The wooden trough is set on a sharp incline so that the  juice, which trickles from the leaves very rapidly, flows down its sides, and finally escapes by a hole at its lower  end into a vessel placed beneath.  It takes about a quarter of an hour to cut leaves enough to fill a trough. The troughs are so distributed as to be  easily accessible to the cutters.

   The leaves are neither infused nor boiled, nor is any use afterwards made of them except for manure. When the vessels  receiving the juice become filled, the latter is removed to  a cask or reserved for evaporation. This may be done at  once, or it may be delayed for weeks or even months.

  The evaporation is generally conducted in a copper vessel;  at the bottom of this is a large ladle, into which the  impurities sink, and are from time to time removed as the boiling goes on. 
   As soon as the inspissations has reached the proper point, which is determined solely by the experienced eye of the  workman, the thickened juice is poured into large gourds or into boxes, and allowed to harden.

  Aloe as Medicinal Herb

   Aloe vera has been used externally to treat various skin conditions such as cuts, burns and eczema. It is alleged that sap from Aloe vera eases pain and reduces inflammation. It has antiseptic and antibiotic properties which make it highly valuable in treating cuts and abrasions. It has also been commonly used to treat first and second degree 
burns, as well as sunburns and poison oak, poison ivy, and poison sumac infections, and eczema. It can also be used as a hair styling gel and works especially well for curly or fuzzy hair. It is also used for making makeup, moisturisers, soaps, sunscreens, shampoos and lotions. Aloe vera gel is useful for dry skin conditions, especially eczema around the eyes and sensitive facial skin. Its juice may help some people with ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease.

   Aloe has been marketed as a remedy for coughs, wounds, ulcers, gastritis, Diabetes, Cancer, headaches, arthritis, immune-system deficiencies, and many other conditions when taken internally. However, the general   internal use is as a laxative. The lower leaf of the plant is used for medicinal purpose. If the lower leaf is sliced open, the gel obtained can be applied on the affected area of the skin. As a medicine it is used as:

   Protector of human immune system : The whole leaf extract galvanizes the cells of immune system. The phagocytes increase their scavenging activities, thus cleansing the body and kicking off a whole cascade of protective actions which strengthen immunity. Aloe Vera is a well-known adaptogen that boosts the body's natural ability to adapt to external changes and resist illness.

   Improves digestive system :  Aloe juice helps in digestive disorders. Constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome etc are cured by the flushing action. The deposits of toxins and unwanted substances in our diet which keep accumulating in intestines prevent the absorption of essential nutrients causing nutritional deficiency, lethargy, constipation, lower back ache. Aloe juice helps flush out these residues boosting the digestion and giving a greater feeling of well-being. Aloe vera also improves Crohn’s disease and other digestive disorders by lubricating the digestive tract to improve problems with constipation. 
  Stomach ulcers: Drink a half a cup of the clear gel at night on an empty stomach before going to bed. Within a few days, the stomach ulcer is gone.

   In arthritis:  Being a stimulant to the immune system, a powerful anti-inflammatory, an analgesic and able to speed up cell growth, it repairs arthritis damaged tissue. While conventional allopathic treatment only relieves pain, Aloe helps in repair process by regenerating cells and detoxifying the affected area. 
 In stress:  Aloe Vera juice is just the thing to get our machinery smoothly and effectively going.

   In cancer : Aloe juice enables the body to heal itself from cancer and the damage done by radio and chemotherapy which destroy healthy immune cells crucial to the recovery.
 In diabetes:  It lowers glucose and tri-glyceride levels in diabetic patients. Effects can be seen from the second week of the treatment. It may help to lower down the glucose level which is the main cause associated with the disease. Numerous clinical studies have been published that demonstrate aloe vera’s anti-diabetic properties. Diabetics suffering from peripheral neuropathy (hands and feet going numb) also benefit from the plant since aloe reverses sludge blood, causing the blood to flow easier which boosts circulation to extremities.

   hepatitis: Extract of aloe juice has been shown to have beneficial effects on liver and alleviate symptoms considerably in chronic hepatitis patients.
 In heart disease:  Addition of isabgol and Aloe Vera juice to the diet of patients of angina pectoris, results in marked reduction of serum cholesterol and tri-glycerides and increase in level of HDL.

    In  AIDS :  A daily dose of min. 1200mg. of active ingredients of aloe vera showed substantial improvement in AIDS symptoms. Says Dr. Pulse,  Aloe is to an AIDS patient as insulin is to a diabetic.
 In Piles:  Aloes have been found useful in piles, mixed in small quantities with sulphur. It is applied by natives externally in the form of lep -paste- in pleurisy A sweetmeat, halwa, is prepared from the pulp of the leaves and given in cases of piles, and apparently with very good effect

  In  wound and skin disease :  Aloe vera gel is excellent for easing first degree burns, relieves inflammation and accelerates healing. Aloe vera gel has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and helps heal minor wounds. It lessens painful effects of shingles, reduces symptoms of psoriasis and eases heartburns and ulcers.

  Ayurvedic Medicine: Aloe is used as an important Ayurvedic medicines. It is used in   Jaundice - A few drops of aloe juice is installed in the nostrils to control jaundice.

   Liver disorders - Aloe juice with turmeric powder should be taken twice a day.

  ; Difficult urination - Continuous diluted aloe juice should be taken time to time to alleviate this condition.

   In wounds - Boil aloe leaves and take the fleshy part of the inside of the leaves to use as a poultice over wounds.

  ; As a cosmetic - Aloe is one of the best known moisturizers and used in creams and shampoos.

  Aloe Helps in Detoxification :
Aloe Vera is a gelatinous plant food. Including in your diet is that these gels move through the intestinal tract absorbing toxins along the way and get eliminated through the colon. This will help the detoxification of your body.

  Aloe Vera halts inflammation
  Using aloe topically is well known to ease inflammation of joints, reducing arthritis pain. But aloe can also be used internally, reducing inflammation throughout the body from the inside out. People who drink aloe vera for two weeks typically begin to experience a reduction of inflammation symptoms.

 Aloe Vera boosts immune function and destroys cancer tumors
  Traditionally recognised for its value in injuries to the skin and as a laxative, aloe vera is now being studied for anti-cancer properties. Researchers have found that aloe contains an ingredient called acemannan that has antiviral and anti-inflammatory action as well as the ability to stimulate the immune system; this, along with its lack of toxic effect even at high doses has spurred further investigation into its use against cancer.
  Scientific research shows strong immunomodulatory and antitumour properties for aloe polysaccharides. That means the gel helps boosts immune system function while destroying Cancer  tumors .One study published in "International Immunopharmacology" (1995) showed that aloe vera polysaccharides exhibited potent macrophage-activating activities including producing increased volumes of nitric oxide. 

 Aloe Vera in home remedy for skin care
  Extracts of Aloe Vera first became popular as a proven skin healer. Aloe is said to improve collagen repair, heal burns and prevent wrinkles. It is a powerful detoxifier, antiseptic and tonic for the nervous system. It also has immune-boosting and anti-viral properties.
  Before going to bed, gently massage a thin layer of fresh aloe vera on your face, around the eyes and the corners of your mouth. This will keep your skin younger looking.
  It acts as a moisturizer and hydrates the skin. After being absorbed into the skin, it stimulates the fibroblasts cells and causes them to regenerate themselves faster.

 Aloe Vera Reduces Wrinkles
 Aloe vera  high water content (over 99% water)  increases the elasticity of the skin making it more flexible through collagen and elastin repair. Aloe is an emollient, helping to soften and soothe the skin.

Aloe Vera Health Benefit

   Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is  known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. 
   Aloe is  a powerful detoxifier, antiseptic and tonic for the nervous system. It also has immune-boosting and anti-viral properties. Research has proven that adding Aloe Vera to ones diet improves digestion. As a general health tonic.
   Aloe Vera is a useful source of vitamins. Aloe Vera Gel contains a large range of vitamins – even  vitamin B12, Vitamin A,  contains B-Group vitamins, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and folic acid.

   Aloe Vera Gel contains important ingredients including 19 of the 20 amino acids needed by the human body and seven of the eight essential ones that just cannot be made.
   Aloe Vera is also a useful source of minerals for our body – include calcium sodium, potassium, iron, chromium, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. These minerals allowing energy levels to increase and also helps maintain a healthy body weight and builds immunity. The inner gel contains eight essential amino acids that the human body needs, and also used for topical treatments for minor wounds, burns and skin irritations for centuries.

   Aloe Vera reduces inflammation, improves joint flexibility and helps in the regeneration of body cells. It strengthens joint muscles, which therefore reduces pain and inflammation in weakened or aged joints associated with arthritis. According to a study conducted by the University of Maryland Medical Center, aloe vera gel has more anti- inflammatory properties than one percent of cortisone cream. It also has strong antibacterial properties, which will heal the skin quickly and naturally with very little scarring.

Aloe Vera products

   There is a wide  product Range of Aloe Vera as: Aloe Juice,  Aloe Jelly, Aloe Vera Gel, Aloe Vera Capsules,  All Purpose Cream,  Body Lotion,  Body Wash, Tooth Gel, Shaving Gel, Shampoo. Hair Gel, Aloe Vera Powder, Aloe Oil and Aloe Butter and many more.

   Aloe Vera Gel: The Aloe Vera Gel is a colorless, odorless, hydrocolloid with several natural beneficial substances. The effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel as a cosmetic skin care and pharmaceutical product is indisputable. The voluminous research shows clearly that the gel reduces scarring in burns, skin ulcers and other lesions. It has also been shown to have an invigorating effect on skin when applied on a regular basis. Although most consumers today use aloe vera as a health-promoting cosmetic and pharmaceutical product, its undeniable healing properties have led medical researchers and food industry specialists to take a second look as an internal health-aide.

   Aloe Vera Gel is produced in several different ways to fit the select needs of the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and cosmetic manufacturers. Thus, manufacturers who prefer the gel in its natural form can order the pure gel, while others may require a liquid or powdered concentrate. Aloe vera gel can be used in a wide range of food products. It is presently used in health drinks, sports beverages, soft drinks, candies and chewing gum. It is even used to prepare a hangover remedy. Aloe gel is used to treat eczema, frostbite, psoriasis as well as gum conditions.

  Commerical farming of aloe vera
Kali Bahadur Khatri from Sundarbasti  has been successful to earn heavy amount with the commercial farming of aloe vera in a very short period.  Khatri had  earned Rs 200,000 in the second year. He has given employment to six persons paying Rs 6,000 per month to
each. He had begun the commercial farming 1.5 bighas of land two and half years ago.
More than 10,000 kg of aloe vera leaves are produced each season, and each kg is sold at Rs 20. Even the seedlings are sold making additional income. Rs 40,000 are made selling the seedlings in a season. Each sapling is sold at Rs 30.
"Demand of aloe vera is growing. So, it is giving  handsome return," he said, adding, the ayurved companies procure aloe vera leaves from the farming. So, it is not necessary to take it to market too."
 The leaves can be harvested for five times in a year. Once planted, it sustains for nearly six year, he added. Khatri has also installed a machine to process the aloe vera leaves. The aloe vera oil is sold at Rs 885 per liter. Source: The Himalayan Times

   Major chemical constituents of Aloe Vera Gel consists primarily of water and polysaccharides (pectins, hemicelluloses, glucomannan, acemannan, and mannose derivatives). It also contains amino acids, lipids, sterols (lupeol,  campesterol, and β-sitosterol), tannins, and enzymes . Mannose 6-phosphate is a major sugar component .

   Aloe Vera juice has helped lower blood sugar in diabetics as well as relieving ulcerative colitis. Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and relief of digestive issues such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome.

  Cosmetics: After Sun Soothing Spray or Gel, Moisturizing Suntan Lotions, Low or non alcohol Soothing Aftershave Lotion, Soothing Shaving Cream for Sensitive Skin, Lip Protector, Lipstick, Under Eye Wrinkle Remover Gel, Psoriasis Dry Flaky Skin Ointment, Anti-Dandruff Shampoo, Hair Rinse, Anti-Dandruff after rinse gel , Diaper Rash Ointment,  Hemorrhoid Ointment, Rich Moisturizing Night Cream for Face, Light Moisturizing Lotion for Face, Hand Lotion, Mouth Rinse for soothing sore and bleeding gums, Soothing Toothpaste for anti-plaque and sore gums,  Aloe Vera Vaginal Douche, Moisturizing Aloe Vera Spray for Refreshing Face, Aloe Facial Cleanser, Aloe Vera Facial Scrub, etc.

   Aloe Vera Powder: Two hundred-fold (200x) powdered concentrate of pure Aloe Vera leaf filets, prepared without additives of any kind. Suitable for use in health food and beverage formulations Capsule forms, made from the leaf of the aloe ferox plant, are one of my most effective treatments for constipation.

   Sarees made from Aloe Vera fibre

   Aloe Vera has found its way into cloth. Weavers in Tamil Nadu are experimenting with it to make colourful sarees. "With the price of yarn increasing, we thought of finding a natural fibre to make sarees. First, we used banana fibre, and now we have used fibre from the Aloe Vera plant. Sarees made from Aloe Vera fibre are in demand. Weavers today are earning well," claimed Sekar, President of the Anakaputhur Jute Weavers Association. "The Aloe Vera saree is becoming popular here. Earlier, we used to get 100 rupees per day, but now we receive 150 rupees; said a weaver. The sarees are worth Rs. 700 (14dollars) and are available in markets across the state.

   Aloe Side Effects

   If Aloe Vira  is not processed properly it turned out to be poisonous. Over dose of Aloe can cause diarrhea and kidney damage. People who are on steroids, pills for irregular heart beat, diuretics, digoxin should not use Aloe People with intestinal disorders, pregnant and nursing mothers and children below 12 years should not use Aloe. On May 9, 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule banning the use of aloe and cascara sagrada as laxative ingredients in over-the-counter drug products. The juice of the leaves of certain species, e.g. Aloe venenosa, is poisonous.  
   Aloe-containing products should be used only if no effect can be obtained through a change of diet or use of bulk-forming products. Stimulant laxative products should not be used when abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting are present. Rectal bleeding or failure to have a bowel movement within 24 hours after use of a laxative may indicate a serious condition. Chronic use may cause dependence and need for increased dosages, disturbances of water and electrolyte balance (e.g.hypokalaemia), and an atonic colon with impaired function Overdose can lead to colicky abdominal spasms and pain, as well as the formation of thin, watery stools  Aloe should not be used during pregnancy except under medical supervision after benefits and risks have been evaluated (WHO Publications)

  Economics

   Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant and due to its  extensive medicinal, nutraceutical and other uses its enjoy a great demand in the market across the globe. The major markets for Aloe Vera and its extracts are Australia, US and the entire Europe. Given the exponentially growing demand for it in the international market, Aloe Vera presents the finest commercial opportunity among the various medicinal plants. India is among the few countries gifted with the unique geographical features essential for cultivation of Aloe Vera and other high potential medicinal plants.

   The International Aloe Science Council is a non-profit trade organization for the Aloe Vera Industry world-wide. Aloe growers, processors, finished goods, manufactures, marketing companies, insurance companies, equipment suppliers, printers, sales  organizations, physicians, scientists and researchers are all eligible for and compromise membership. The common bond between the diverse group of individuals and companies is an interest in promoting Aloe Vera use in skin care products, beverages, pharmaceuticals and a wide variety of other products.

   In the present model, the unit cost for the development of Aloe vera in 1 ha of land works out to be Rs.87500.00. The financial assistance for the cost of development can be arranged as bank loan. Bank loan of 85 - 95 % of the total cost of development shall be available from the financing institution.

  Modern Research

   Researchers at the University of Miguel Hernández in Alicante, Spain, have developed a gel based on A. vera that prolongs the conservation of fresh produce, such as fresh fruit and legumes. This gel is tasteless, colorless and odorless. This natural product is a safe and environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic preservatives such as sulfur dioxide. The study showed that grapes at 1°C coated with this gel could be preserved for 35 days against 7 days for untreated grapes. According to the researchers, this gel operates through a combination of mechanics , forming a protective layer against the oxygen and moisture of the air and inhibiting, through its various antibiotic and ant fungal compounds, the action of micro-organisms that cause food borne illnesses.

   Scientific research shows strong immunomodulatory and anti-tumor properties for aloe vera polysaccharides. The gel helps boost  immune system function while destroying cancer tumors. One study published in "International Immunopharmacology" (1995) showed that aloe vera polysaccharides exhibited potent macrophage-activating activities including producing increased volumes of nitric oxide (which has anti-tumor potential).

  References

   1. Vogler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness
 2. Taxon: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Germplasm Resources Information Network, US Department of Agriculture.
 3. Jamir T. T., Sharma H. K., Dolui A. K. (1999). - Folklore medicinal plants of Nagaland, India 
 4. Barcroft and Myskja (2003) - Aloe Vera: Nature's Silent Healer 
 5. BBC Gardening,: Aloe vera
 6. Kemper Center for Home Gardening: Aloe vera 
 7. Vaibhav Varma. "India experiments with farming medicinal plants" 
 8. Reynolds, T. (2004) - Aloes: The Genus Aloe . CRC Press
 9. Eshun, K., He, Q (2004) Aloe Vera: A Valuable Ingredient for the Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Industries 
10. Miracle of  Aloe -  <http://www.miracleofaloe.com>.
11 Jones WD, Sacamano C. (2000) - Landscape Plants for Dry Regions
12 Grindlay D, Reynolds T. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. "Journal of ethnopharmacology", 1986 
 13.Newton LE. In defence of the name Aloe vera. The cactus and succulent journal of Great Britain, 1979
 14. Rowe TD, Park LM.Phytochemical study of Aloe vera leaf. "Journal -American Pharmaceutical Association, 1941
 15. Heggers JP, Pelley RP, Robson MC. Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing."/Phytotherapy research", 1993
 16. Winters WD, Benavides R, Clouse WJ. Effects of aloe extracts on human normal and tumor cells in vitro  "Economic botany", 1981 
 17. Fujita K, Teradaira R. Bradykininase activity of aloe extract."Biochemical pharmacology", 1976 
 18. Udupa SI, Udupa AL, Kulkarni :Anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties of Aloe vera. Fitoterapia, 1994  
 19. Robson MC, Heggers J, Hagstrom WJ. Myth, magic, witchcraft or fact? Aloe vera /revisited. "Journal of burn care and rehabilitation", 1982 ;
 20. Collin C. Roentgen dermatitis treated with fresh whole leaf of Aloe vera. "American journal of roentgen", 1935

 Aloe vera extract on dry lips

  
 Apart from treating a dry skin, aloe
vera extract can also be applied on dry and chapped lips. The hygroscopic property of aloe vera extract helps in moisturising and keeping the skin soft.
Lipsticks can dry your lips and chap them. So, if your lips are dry, avoid wearing lipsticks for sometime. Go for natural lip glosses (coconut oil, honey and aloe vera extract). Chemicals in lip
balms, lip gloss or lipsticks can irritate the skin.


  Sunburn pack
Sunburn is a common skin problem. To get rid of tanning make fresh aloe vera juice and mix it with few drops of lemon. Dab a cotton ball in the mixture and rub it gently on your face. Leave it for 10 minutes and wash it with lukewarm water. This will help you get rid of suntan and moisturizes your skin.
  Aloe vera gell can be rubbed on sun burn, blisters for quick relief. it has similar coolong and soothing properties like menthol.

  Fairness pack 
  Aloe vera is the best herbal face pack for a glowing skin naturally. Mix aloe vera extract with rose water and apply
a thick coat over the face and around your eyes. Gentle massage for 2-3 minutes to cleanse out dead skin pores
and leave for 15-20 minutes. Wash with
cold water. For good result us this pack once a week 
 
  Acne face pack 
  This face pack helps you get rid of pimples and acne pores. Take a stick of aloe vera and boil it in water. Grind into a watery paste and add honey. Stir the honey until it dissolves in hot water. Apply it on your face especially on the acne or pimple pores. Leave for around 15 minutes, and wash it gently with cold water.

  Skin rashes pack
  Mix aloe vera gel, cucumber juice and yogurt into a paste. Apply this pack on your face and rinse with cold water after 10-15 minutes. It is a good pack for sensitive skin and to get rid of rashes.

   Aloe Vera in hair treatment
;
 Aloe Vera is considered as a miraculous plant by some for even hair
loss treatment. It is assumed that no other plant more closely matches the human body's biochemistry, hence, an excellent treatment for hair loss. It has anti-inflammatory properties of and therefore helps in fighting against Androgenetic Alopecia.
  Aloe vera also helps to speed up hair growth- this can be done by massaging aloe vera gel into the scalp and letting it sit for thirty minutes before rinsing. aloe vera can also be used as an hair conditioner for silkier and smoother hair. it also fights against hair dandruff by mixing aloe vera gel with coconut milk and wheat germ oil and massaging it into the scalp.

   Natural food preservative 
 Aloe vera as a natural food preservative A thin layer of aloe vera gel can be used as a natural food preservative, eliminating the need for chemical  preservatives. Dipping fruits and vegetables in aloe vera gel would eliminate e.coli, preserve freshness, and greatly extend shelf life.

 Aloe Vera Video
 Aloe Vera Video
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