Bael in Worship
Bael as Medicinal tree
Other uses of Bael
Food value in Bael
Bael Side Effects
The Bael tree is one of the most utilitarian medicinal plants of India.
In the ancient medical Aurvedic treatise `Charaka Samhita`, every part of this tree, stem, bark, root, leaves and fruit at all
stages of maturity -have medicinal merits and have been used as remedy for a long time. Ripe bael fruit is
regarded the best of all purgatives. It cleanses and strengthens the intestines. Its ripe fruits flesh used for
syrups or can be eaten both fresh and dried. Bael tree is considered a sacred tree , commonly grown in temple gardens in the country. The fruit is
known to possess significant therapeutic and medicinal value and is widely used in Homeopathy and Ayurveda.
Beal is the most effective herbal remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. The antibiotic activity of the leaf, fruit and root of this plant has been
confirmed. Leaves of bael are anti-diabetic whereas the bark and the root have proven anti-inflammatory properties.
Hindi - Bel (बेल ) , Sirphal
English - Bael tree, holy fruit tree
Latin - Aegle marmelos
Sanskrit - vilvah (बिल्वम्), Sriphalah
Punjabi - Beel
Tamil - Kuvilam (வில்வம்), Vilvam
Kannada - Belapatri (ಬೇಲದ ಹಣ್ಣು)
Telugu - Bilwamu (మారేడు), Maredu
Malayalam- Kulakam (കൂവളം)
Marathi - Bela (बेल or कवीठ), (Kaveeth)
Bangla - Bel ( বেল)
Bael tree with fruits
Bael fruit, flowers and leaves
The bael fruit has a smooth, woody shell with a gray, or yellow peel.
Bael in Worship:
The bael tree has immense mythological importance and the reference of bael fruit has been made in
the Yajurveda and Hindu scriptures. Leaves of the tree are traditionally used as holy offering to
Lord Shiva (शिव) The trifoliate leaves symbolize the trident that
Shiva holds in his right hand. In the traditional culture of Nepal, the bael tree is part of a fertility ritual for girls known as the "Bel baha".
Bael is a medium
sized tree, reaching a height of 8 to 10 metres. It has a solid trunk, branches with long straight offshoot. Its leaves are fragrant
and sweet-scented and greenish-white flowers. The fruit is woody and polished, 5 to 15 cm in diameter. It has abundant seeds that
are thickly covered with fibrous hair and are implanted in a fat
Various chemical elements found from various parts of the bael tree mainly alkaloids, coumarins and
steroids. The leaves contain skimianinc, sterol and aegelin. The active
ingredient of the fruit marmorosin is identical to imperatorin. Other coumarins contained in the fruits are altoimperatorin and B
sitosterol. Roots of the tree contain psoralin, xanthotoxin, scopoletin and tembamide chemicals. .
SOIL AND CLIMATE
Bael can be grown in any type of soil such as sandy, clay, water logged,
unirrigated, acidic or alkaline in the pH range of 5-10. Bael has capacity to adapt successfully to a wide range of habitat from
arid, semiarid to mesophytic conditions and a wide temperature tolerance (from -7°C to 48°C).
Bael is usually propagated by seeds. The seeds are recalcitrant and can
not be stored for longer periods under normal storage conditions..
THINNING AND WEEDING
Weeding & Hoeing is required in nursery.
MANURES, FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES
The deficiency of nitrogen and zinc is common in Bael
trees and can be corrected by soil application or foliar spray.
More than a dozen insects have been found feeding on
Bael. "Phyllocnistis citrella, Aonidiella aurantii" and "Papilio demoleus" are the important insects which can be easily controlled by use of
insecticides. Bacterial shot hole, fruit canker and gummosis are the serious diseases. Fruit cracking is the physiological disorder in some
genotypes of Bael which occurs just before ripening.
Amla plants of water per day per tree through drips should be given.
Pruning is done twice in a year, once in May and other in August. Pruning is limited to
the removal of dead and diseased twigs/branches in May while in August healthy leaves are pruned for sale.
Fruits take about 11 months to ripen. These are harvested with fruit
stalk when color changes to yellowish green. A full grown tree produces from 400-1000 fruits depending upon the cultivar.
Bael as Medicinal tree
Every part of bale tree-stem, bark, root, leaves and fruit at all stages of maturity -have medicinal
merits and have been used as remedy for a long time. Fresh half ripe Bael fruit is mildly astringent
and used to cure dysentery, diarrhoea, hepatitis, tuberculosis, dyspepsia and good for heart and brain. Roots have
antidiarrhoetic, antidote to snake venom, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties.
Constipation : Ripe bael fruit is regarded the best of all purgatives. It cleanses and
strengthens the intestines. Its everyday usage for 2 or 3 months disposes even the old hoarded faecal matter.
Diarrhoea and Dysentery: The immature or half-ripe fruit is
the most effective remedy for continual diarrhoea and dysentery. The use of dried bael or its powdered form gives the best result.
Peptic Ulcer: Bael leaves is considered an effective solution for peptic ulcer. The leaves are doused overnight in water. This water is
sieved and taken in the morning.
Other uses of Bael
The Bael fruit is one of the most nutritious fruits, rich in riboflavin
and used for the preparation of a number of products like candy, squash, toffee, slab, pulp powder and nectar. The leaves and seed oil have pesticidal properties.
Food value in Bael
The bael fruit
contains 61.5% moisture, 1.8% protein, 0% fat, 1.7% minerals, 2.9% fibre and 31.8%
carbohydrates, per 100 grams of eatable portion. Its mineral and vitamin
contents consist of calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C. Its vital energy value is 137.
Bael Side Effects
No side effect is found.
dry fruit is economically viable and bigger market Ministry of Health & FW Government of
India campaign is aimed to promote the health benefits
and mass cultivation of Bael, so as to boost the economics of growers etc and preserve the indigenous system of medicine.
Researchers of Banaras Hindu University
(BHU) have successfully isolated a new molecule from the seeds of 'bael' fruit that shows anti-fungal properties. The research also promises to
pave the way for development of new drug with medicinal value.While the research study attracted attention during poster presentation
on the last day of two-day national symposium on emerging trends in chemical sciences, organised by department of chemistry, BHU, on
April 8, 2012. it also marked a breakthrough in the isolation and synthesis of designer molecule with medicinal value.
"The molecule-- homo imperatorin-- responsible for anti-fungal properties in the seeds of 'bael' fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) has been
isolated for the first time and it has taken five long years of research work," said Bhuwan B Mishra, one of the members of research team while
talking to TOI on April 8, 2012. It was conducted in continuation of work on
discovery of bioactive constituents from Indian medicinal plant, especially anti-fungal constituents, he added.
The research study for isolation of 'imperatorin' and 'iso imperatorin' from the seeds of the
fruit has been already published in Phytochemistry, a reputed European Journal in its December, 2010 issue.
* Singh, R.N. and S.K. Roy. 1984. The Bael cultivation and processing.I.C.A.R., New Delhi.
* Teaotia, S.S., V.N. Maurya and B.N. Agnihotri. Some promising varieties of Bael of eastern districts of UP
* Jauhari, O.S., R.D. Singh and R.K.Awasthi. 1969. Survey of some important varieties of Bael
* Indian Ministry of Health and Family Planning. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part I.