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 Medicinal tree Neem (नीम)  (Page 2)


  Uses of Neem
 Neem purify air
 Neem leaf tea
 Neem in Hindu Religion
 Neem patent case
 Neem Africa’s green gold
 Neem checks Climate Change and Global Warming
 Neem checks desert and enrich environment
 Neem undiscovered cure for cancer
 Neem Global use
 Neem tree under attack from new pest

  Uses of Neem

   Neem products

  Neem diffrent parts as Neem extracts, Neem oil, Neem leaves are used in different industries like agricultural industry, herbal industry, pharmaceutical industry to manufacture quality natural products. Neem extracts have a high medicinal value, they are used to cure a number of diseases.

  Neem Gum:   Neem Gum used in many Industries as: Cosmetic Industry: Facial masks, lotions, face powder, protective creams.

  In Paper Industry it is used as an adhesive and strengthening the paper.

  In Pharmaceutical Industry neem Gum is used in antiseptic creams, tablet binder, and coater.

  In Textile Industry Neem Gum is used in dyeing and printing of fabrics.

  Personal Hygiene Industry : Used in soaps, tooth paste, tooth powders.

  Food Industry : Used as a stabilizing agent, gels and thickening agent.

Cosmetic industries:  Neem is also used cosmetically and in toiletries. In India, Neem sprigs are boiled, and the water is then used as a hair wash. Neem hair treatment clears scalp infections and dandruff and stimulates both the growth and texture of the hair and rids the scalp of nits, dry itchy scalp and excessive oiliness. It is very effective in clearing up fungal infections like athletes foot, ringworm and Candida.

 Hair care:  Neem is used to prevent falling or graying of hair. Two drops of Neem oil put in the nostril prevents falling and graying of hair. To get rid of lice and dandruff. Neem oil massage should be done on scalp during night. In the morning, hair should be washed with Neem water.

 Neem extract cloths
 A Delhi-based company Advantage Organic, is using extracts of neem and basil  leaves and flecks of silver in the briefs and panties so that the ones using it do not get any bacterial infection Neem, a type of mahogany known in India as the "Divine Tree", is known for its soothing properties and has long been used in Asia as an ingredient in skincare products to ease irritations.

Malaria Prevention: Drinking neem teas or chewing a couple of leaves every day reduces the possibility of contracting malaria a mosquito-born fever. Extracts obtained by a water and acetone combination are even more effective than plain neem tea.

Apart from its use against malaria, neem plays a traditional role in the treatment of urinary disorders, skin disease, diabetes, fungi infections and viral diseases. Neem twigs contain antiseptic ingredients which provide dental hygiene and has been used for this purpose by people from rural areas in India and parts of Africa. Neem is also of ecological importance: In Africa the tree is used as a shade tree and as a source of fuelwood. In the Sahel countries, neem as been used for halting the spread of the Sahara desert.In many developing countries the wood is used in making fence post, poles for house construction, and furniture.

  Use in Agriculture:

  Neem tree has superb pharmaceutical and pesticide controlling qualities. The azadirachton compound in neem has been recognized as an effective insecticide that is biologically selective, not harming the useful pest- predators but keeping almost 250 harmful ones at bay.

  Neem cake is traditionally put in rice fields as a fertilizer. Scientists recommend coating urea with neem cake to kill nitrifying bacteria. Neem also contains salanin, a chemical substance that is a potent pest controller and is said to be far more effective than the chemically produced diethyl-toluamide that is a part of most of the lethal synthetically produced pesticides. Agro scientists say that neem is the most eco-friendly pesticide which nature has bestowed on man. They recommend that neem and its kernel should be liberally mixed with compost and set to rot. The pesticide is ready in around three to four months depending on the weather conditions. Organic farming using neem as a pesticide is still done on a very miniscule scale in India. here are hardly any pesticide-free farm products available in the country though there is a growing demand for these.

  Many western agro-scientists say that if neem is effective on a small scale, it can be done on a larger scale as well. There is a certain urgency in advocating the use of neem as a pesticide as there is a growing concern on the lethal pesticides being used in our day-to-day foods.  For example, a minimum of six to seven chemical pesticides are sprayed on an apple tree before the fruit is plucked. Just before harvesting the apple trees are sprayed with fungicides and pesticides along with daminozide, a growth regulator. Finally the fruit is sprayed with 'alar' to heighten its redness. Once the apples reach the cold storage they are sprayed with pesticides once again to keep off the rats and insects. Just imagine what it does to your body every time you eat an apple. Which is exactly the reason why scientists are so bullish about the neem option as a pesticide. Because not just as a pesticide, neem has its medicinal values as well.

  Neem Dream Insect Control:  ix neem oil in water and spray on plants. Neem oil doesn't kill pests outright, It affects their physiologic processes so that they no longer eat, mate or mature. And because insects must feed on plant tissues to be affected, neem-treated plants are safe for beneficial insects such as bees and butterflies.

  Neem-based bioinsecticides: Thapar University, one of India’s top technical universities, announced the commercial production of neem-based bioinsecticides at the university’s bio processing unit on October 06, 2008.  Dr. Abhijit Mukherjee, Director, Thapar University, said, “We are confident that herbal bioinsecticides have tremendous market potential and will become a promising small scale business venture.”

   “Bioorganic farming is of significant importance as bioinsecticides and biopesticides are herbal, non-toxic and environment friendly. Broad spectrum insecticides offer effective protection against pests. These environment- friendly products do not cause contamination of soil and ground water, and have wide applications,” added Dr. Mukherjee. India plans to register neem-based products as a pesticide under its Insecticide Act. A pilot project using neem is being implemented since 2000 in some 80 villages in South 24 Parganas district in West Bengal and Nagpur district in Maharashtra, with support from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

  Neem purify air

   Neem purify air and helps to clean environment. Neem compounds from neem trees are said to have anti- inflam­matory and antiviral properties. Neem trees should be planted around hospitals and sani­tariums. Place packets of neem tree leaves or camphor balls inside bookcases or cupboards to protect from insect infestation.

  Neem leaf tea

   A tea made from the leaves and mature seeds is still a popular remedy today for treating bladder, kidney and prostate ailments. This brewed tea can be added to a base cream and used as a healing, soothing treatment forhaemorrhoids. The bark and roots can be made into a tea and has been used for centuries to treat jaundice and liver ailments, intestinal parasites, stomach ulcers and malaria.

  A strong tea of the leaves is used as a lotion for sprains, bruises and swollen glands – a bandage or cloth soaked in the hot tea is applied to the area and held in place, often with a banana leaf wrapped around it. As a wash and lotion the same tea is used for eczema, rashes, grazes and scrapes and to wash out wounds. Leaves heated in boiling water are applied to boils, sprains, infected wounds, bites, stings and infected grazes.

  To make neem leaf tea : pour 1 cup of boiling water over ¼ cup fresh leaves, stand for 5 minutes, strain and sip slowly. The tea is taken to reduce blood sugar levels, lower fevers, and to treat tuberculosis, bladder ailments, arthritis, rheumatism, jaundice, worms, malaria and skin disease.

    Neem Gum

  Neem Gum
 Neem Gum is a clear, bright and brown-coloured gum a by product obtained as a result of certain metabolic mechanism of plants and trees. The gum is a multipurpose by product either water soluble or absorb water to form a viscous solution. Neem gum is a rich source of protein. 

 Skin infection
 Boil  neem leaves (about 50 leaves in two litres of water) till the the water turns green. Strain and store in a bottle. Add about 100 ml of this to your bath water to rid the skin of infections, acne and white heads.

 In the past, the typical male contraceptives included chemicals extracted from plants. These plant chemicals include Neem tree oil, papaya seeds and hemp seeds These chemicals prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg by interfering with sperm concentration, motility and viability.
 Pests to Control with Neem
 There are the some most troublesome pests which Neem Oil is used to eliminate and/or control. Anthracnose, Aphids, Armyworms,  Blight, Boxelder Bugs, Caterpillars, Cockroaches, Corn Earworm, Flies, Grasshoppers, Locusts, Mealybugs, Mites, Potato Beetle, Slugs, Snails

 Neem oil for skin and hair care to pest control

Most commonly used in skin and hair care products in both India and Bangladesh, neem oil is touted for its antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic and anti-parasitic properties. Neem oil can soothe irritated skin, fade scars, lighten hyper-pigmentation , moisturize dry and cracked skin, restore damaged hair. control oil production, eliminate acne and heal eczema and psoriasis as well,

Neem oil as an ingredient in body soaps, cleansers, hair care and anti-aging products. It’s mostly present in natural products that focus on healing dry skin, psoriasis, scalp problems and eczema.

Some people apply neem directly to the skin to treat head lice , wounds, and skin ulcers; it’s also used as an insect repellent and has been used in other countries for flea control on pets.


   The exports of the neem seeds from India have increasing rapidly. The overseas companies rushing to India has also results a ten-fold rise in the price of neem seeds from Rs. 300 to Rs. 3,000 a tonne. If the prices shoot up and exports keep rising, the ubiquitous neem may become out of reach for the ordinary Indian farmer.

  Even some of the most cautious researchers are saying that neem deserves to be called a wonder plant. According to Noel Vietmeyer, the study director of a 1992 National Research Council report entitled "Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems."

  Today, Perrin Fitter’s is the promoter of ‘Greening of India with neem’ project. Born and brought up in Kenya, Fitter has been a teacher-cum-environment conservationist there for the last 40 years. After promoting neem in Kenya, where she is known as ‘Mama Neem’, she wants to create awareness about the qualities of neem. In India, neem is not valued much economically. In Kenya, even leaves of neem fetch you money  “My project is not just confined to planting neem trees but to promote its use to the grassroots by way of talks, seminars, workshops, conferences and demonstrations,” Fitter says.

  Neem in co-generation of electricity:  The 12 sugar mills identified by Tamil Nadu Government for co- generation of electricity under a Rs 1,500 crore programme would start producing a total of 187 MW from June 2011, a top official of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) has said on first week of October 2010.  After completion of the installation, the 12 sugar mills would start producing 187 MW of power from June, 2011, Mr Singh said last evening at Chennampatty village in the district after inspecting cultivation of Hill Neem trees, whose wood is used as a fuel to burn surplus bagasse for producing energy. Stating that the government and TNEB were encouraging cultivation of Hill Neem trees, he said farmers would get Rs 2,500 per tonne for the wood. He appealed the farmers to raise more neem trees and supply them to paper industry also
  Some of Neem products are soaps, bath powders, shampoos, lotions and creams, toothpastes, neem leaf capsules to increase immunity and as a skin purifier, insect repellents and pet care products are in great demand.

Neem in Hindu Religion

   In Hindu traditions, on the first day of Chaitra, Hindu's in North India worship the neem and eat its leaves, mixed with pepper and sugar, as a safeguard from fever. The neem tree besides having various medicinal benefits is a highly revered tree among the Hindus because it is a manifestation of "Goddess Durga" or "Maa Kali". That is why the tree is sometimes referred to as Neemari Devi. Tamil Ladies, while worshiping Maa kali dress in red, carry branches of the Neem tree, and dance in public places swishing the branches as an act of exorcism and to purify the world. The multi-headed occult goddess Yellamma sometimes assumes the appearance of a young neem tree. Young maidens worship this Goddess by cladding themselves all over in neem branches. In Bengal, neem is considered to be the tree which is the abode of "Sitala" (the great Pox-mother who can cause or cure disease). The customary treatment of pox is therefore to rub the body with neem leaves while making prayers to Sitala. It is also said that the smoke of burning neem protects both the living and the dead from evil spirits.

  Gudhi Padwa festival is especially dedicated to the worship of Lord Brahma. Maharashtrians see the gudhi as a symbol of victory associated with the conquests of the Maratha forces lead by the great hero Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Traditionally, families are supposed to begin the festivities by eating the bittersweet leaves of the neem tree. Sometimes, a paste of neem leaves is prepared and mixed with ajwain, gur, and tamarind. All the members of the family consume this paste, which is believed to purify the blood and strengthen the body’s immune system against diseases.

  People in many villages in south India continue to live by the belief that their traditional practices, rituals and superstitions will invariably help them lead a better life. In one such instance, people in a Coimbatore village organised a symbolic wedding of a Neem and Banyan tree on June 2009 to appease Rain God.

Neem patent case

   The neem patent was granted by the European Patent Office to the United States Department of Agriculture and the chemical multinational, W.R. Grace, on September 14, 1994. Since then, Dr. Shiva, along with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement and the Green Party in European Parliament, had been opposing it. In 2000, the European Patent Office revoked the patent but the victory was short-lived as the revocation was followed by an appeal.

  At the hearing March 09, 2005, the patent was revoked after a petition was filed which was backed by the signatures of more than 100,000 Indians and 225 agricultural, scientific and trade groups in 45 countries. Dr. Shiva said. "We gave them evidence of farmers using this knowledge for a long time and also gave them information about the two scientists who had conducted research on neem in the 1960s and 1970s before the patent had been granted. During the hearing they dismissed the appeal and upheld the earlier revocation of the patent."  Calling it a historic moment, Dr. Shiva said: "Patenting is one of the ways through which traditional users can be threatened. But now, such patents will no longer be a threat for traditional users.

Neem Africa’s green gold

   Senegalese scientist, Dr. Doudou D.Faye, has said that African unity can be achieved through the maximum exploitation of natural resources like the 'Neem' tree if the development needs of the African continent are to be properly addressed.

  Now northern Nigeria has discovered a huge economic potentials in Neem tree .According to Bello Ahmad, "Beyond all the possible pesticides and pharmaceuticals, neem provides many useful and valuable commonplace materials. For instance, oil extracted from the seeds goes into soaps, waxes, and lubricants, as well as into fuels for lighting and heating. The solid residue left after the oil is removed from the kernels, is employed as a fertilizer. In addition, wood from the trees is valued for construction, cabinetry, and fuel. The bark is tapped for gum and extracted for tannins and dental-care products. The leaves are sometimes used for emergency livestock feed. And the profuse flowers are a prized source of honey." Of all these products, the neem oil is perhaps the most commercially important. According to Bello, "In composition, it is much like other vegetable oils, composed primarily of triglycerides of oleic, stearic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

   To obtain neem oil, the seeds are first broken open and the kernels separated. The kernels are then pressed in industrial expellers or in hand- or bullock-operated wooden presses (ghanis). The oil yield is sometimes as high as 50 percent of the weight of the kernel. This "cold-pressed oil" is mainly used in lamps, soaps, and other nonedible products. It is generally dark, bitter, and smelly. Unlike most vegetable oils, it contains sulfur compounds, whose pungent odor is reminiscent of garlic."

  While lending credence to the numerous views on the diverse benefits of the tree, the Katsina state governor, Alhaji Ibrahim Shema, was quoted  as saying that the neem tree has a huge potential for industrial use and export purposes. "The neem tree is a wonderful plant," Shema said. "It is in abundance in Katsina State. It is a tree that you plant which does not require a lot of water after it has grown up, and it works to reduce desertification." According to him, the neem tree has potential for industrial use with great potential for export. 

  Azadirachta indica is an extensively popular tree in Nigeria and is commonly referred to as Neem (English), “Dogon Yaro” (Hausa) and “Akun shorop” (Igbo).

Neem checks desert and enrich environment

   Inspired by the green cover in the desert area of Israel, a man here is determined to transform the Thar desert by undertaking massive plantation on his own. Kishore Khimawat, a diamond merchant by profession, has so far planted over 1.75 lakh neem plants in the district. The green cover along many roads in the region reflects the dedication and hard work behind the plantation work done by him. Not only road sides, but hospitals, schools and institute premises also have green cover due to the efforts of Khimawat, who hails from Khimel village, about 60 kms from here, and is now settled in Mumbai.

  ;"Over 1.75 lakh saplings on several road sides, in a total area of 290 kms, have been planted in the district so far with cent per cent survival rate," Khimawat said. "Experts suggested that I plant neem which grows even in adverse conditions, offering maximum greenery which in turn attracts rainfall and keeps the environment healthy," he said

Neem undiscovered cure for cancer

   Khushali Upadhyay of Rutherford recently placed as a semi-finalist for research she did on the effectiveness of chemical extracts taken from the Neem tree on leukemia cells. Upadhyay took leaves from the Neem tree, a species native to Southeast Asia and rarely found outside India and Pakistan. The tree is widely used in India as a home-cure for many different ailments: it's used in tea and in toothpaste, it's recognized as having anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties. "The Neem is something we use in almost everything," said Upadhyay. Her family moved to the United States from India when she was about five years old, but she and her family have travelled back there each year to visit their relatives in Bombay. "It's considered the miracle tree in India."

   The uses got Upadhyay wondering if anyone had ever tested to see if the tree be effective against cancer. A review of the available research showed that relatively little had been done and almost all of it overseas in India. Upadhyay then set about getting leaves from the Neem tree and using solvents to extract different chemical compounds from the plant. Using the extensive facilities provided by Bergen Academy, Upadhyay tested the chemicals on healthy human immune system cells called "natural killer cells" and on leukemia cells. Her research showed that the Neem extract helped strengthen the immune system cells. "The Neem [acted] as a natural antioxidant to help the natural killer cells survive," she said. After two years of research, Upadhyay submitted her research to the Intel Science Talent Search, a prestigious nationwide research competition for high school students that's been around since 1942. Out of 1,744 applicants across the country,

   Neem fruit

Neem oil can be blended with jojoba, almond or tea tree oil as a carrier, which lessens the medicinal smell. Dosing depends on age, health and the location and type of rash, but Guberti advises working with a knowledgeable practitioner for both skin use and internal dosing.

 Anti-Aging Serum
Highly coveted fatty acids, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory properties are all present in neem, plus it’s rich in vitamin E which is a proven ingredient in reversing sun damage and keeping away free radicals. Use this treatment twice daily for best results.
1 teaspoon of jojoba oil, 1 teaspoon of orange peel and 3-4 drops of neem essential oil. Store this Serum in a dark container to prevent turning.

Purifying water
 Boil a concoction of neem leaves (about 50 leaves in two litres of water) till the leaves are soft and discoloured, and the water turns green. Strain and store in a bottle. Add about 100 ml of this to your bath water to rid the skin of infections, acne and white heads
  Neem Gaach
A play titled ‘Neem Gaach’ (Neem Tree) is a popular story written by well-known Bengali playwright Balai Chand Mukhopadhyay. “It is about the struggles faced by women during 19th-century India when it was mostly a patriarchal society,” said Chakraborty.

   Neem oil for dengue patients

 A recent review of repellents published in the "International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences" found that Neem oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) in concentrations of one to two percent mixed with coconut oil was found to be effective against the mosquito that spreads malaria.
  Neem leaves mixed with soap and shea butter, a neem cream is an economical and effective way to prevent mosquito bites that cause dengue and malaria.
  Winnipeg, Manitoba is the mosquito capital of North America several organic- product stores in the city sell sprays that use neem oil, a vegetable oil pressed from the fruit and the seeds of neem tree.

  Neem flower

  Ugadi, the Telugu New Year the bitter element in the traditional Ugadi Pachadi is the Margossa (Neem) flower.

   Neem in dental gel

 The College of Pharmaceutical Sciences in India found that Neem leaf extract in a dental gel reduced plaque and bacteria.

  Neem is a suitable biofuel crop.
 The Karnataka State Biofuel Development Board (KSBDB) is promoting honge species along with several locally available and useful tree species such as neem, jathropha, simaruba and hippe tree for the development of bio-diesel.
 Apart from having medicinal value, neem is a suitable biofuel crop. A kilogram of neem seeds has 2,500- 3,000 numbers. A well grown 10-12 year old neem tree yields 15 kilograms of seeds. Simaruba and jatropha are also known to be good bio-fuel crops

 Honey, collected from beehives on neem trees 
  Doctors at the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) have devised a "sweet" method to treat patients with severe wounds visiting its out patients' department. Inspired from remedies adopted by soldiers in World War II, the doctors are using Honey to heal chronic wounds and bedsores. The honey, collected from beehives on neem trees, has been supplied to the premier institute by Baba Ramdev's Patanjali Yogpeeth  in Haridwar.

Neem Global use

   There are initiatives around the world involving the miracle neem tree projects. Indigenous communities in Mexico are planting neem trees in school projects, and the American company “Just Neem” uses profits from the sale of neem cosmetic products to help reforest arid regions in northwestern Africa.
  A new project from the University of Texas aims to plant neem trees in the Sahara Desert. “If you plant neem trees in the desert, it not only helps the climate, you can also use the fruits and seeds to make products that are in high demand around the world,” says Ramesh Saxena, the head of India’s Neem Foundation.

  Germany’s federal development agency, the GIZ, has also started using neem trees in West Africa. “It’s filled a gap that local species hadn’t covered,” says Martina Wegner, an expert in rural development  at the GIZ. But she adds that the neem tree’s incredible ability to adapt to any conditions has put native species in some areas in danger. Neem trees can be used to combat desertification of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan

   Neem tree requires little water, grows fast and lays deep root . An intiative to plant the "miracle" trees in Peru’s arid north has proven to be a boon for the climate and local communities, too. The tree’s resilience is what prompted Elke Krüger to test out the species in Peru’s coastal north.
“We put it under water for several months, it can withstand temperatures of up to 50 degrees Celsius, and we even planted it directly on the coast in salt water,” says Krüger, who set up a non-profit organization called Plan Verde, or ”Green Plan.” And in the end, the tree survived. So did the other 200,000 neem trees that she planted in and around the city of Piura in northern Peru. Farmers in and around Piura have started to plant the trees around their fields.

   Neem is absolutely universal. Beyond skin care and body care, it can also be used to treat dandruff. And since it is an insect repellent, Neem can also get rid of lice. Hair care products with Neem are great natural alternatives to the conventional anti-dandruff shampoos that can be chock-full of chemically laden ingredients. As an anti-inflammatory and an anti-bacterial, it is great for the teeth and gums and can reduce plaque and gingivitis. Products from TheraNeem, Alaffia, and Himalaya Herbal Healthcare all contain therapeutic doses of Neem.

   Neem tree under attack from new pest

   Neem tree a panacea for many ills,is under attack from a new voracious pest that is found to devour the leaves of the wonder tree, say scientists. The pest has been identified as 'Cleora Coronaria' belonging to a family of moths and previously known as a minor pest of the neem tree, referred to as 'Arishta' or reliever of sickness in ancient Sanskrit texts. A study of the pest by zoologists of the University of Lucknow indicate it is a fast-growing insect with a voracious appetite. The newly-hatched insects were usually found clumped on the edges of neem leaves feeding in a frenzied manner, Prof Omkar and Geentanjali Mishra reported in 'Current Science'. "They moved around actively in search of food and cut leaves rhythmically in semi-circles," they said. After feeding on the neem leaves for four to five days, the insects become sluggish and burrow themselves in moist soil to transform into a moth in about a fortnight.

   In their ifetime of five to seven days, the moths mate thrice with the female laying over 500 eggs of which over 95 per cent were found to be viable, the zoologists said. Two peculiar incidents of entire defoliation of mature neem trees in 2009-10 in some villages of Uttar Pradesh caught the scientists' attention. "The increasing spread of this defoliating insect on a tree believed to be invincible, led to studies about its identity, previous records, status as an occasional pest and life history," they said. They now recommend that the insect be re-classified as a major pest. Observations that locusts settled on the neem tree but did not feed on it, led to numerous studies which aided the identification of around 200 compounds responsible for various insecticide and medicinal properties.


   1.Kausik Biswas, Ishita Chattopadhyay, Ranajit K.Banerjee and Uday Bandyopadhyay. "Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica)
2. Ganguli, S. "Neem: A therapeutic for all seasons"
3. Zillur Rahman and M. Shamim Jairajpuri. Neem in Unani Medicine.
4. Neem Foundation
5. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica): Kausik Biswas, Ishita Chattopadhyay, Ranajit K. Banerjee  and Uday Bandyopadhyay
6. Medicinal properties of Neem: New Findings: D.P. Agrawal
7. EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) ON THE GROWTH PATTERN OF DERMATOPHYTES:  V Natarajan et al / Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
8. Effects of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration and acid secretion in rats: Yinusa Raji et al - Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 90, Issue 1,January 2004
9. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil): Gandhi M et al- Ethnopharmacol. 1988
10. Antibacterial Effects of Crude A indicaq Neem Bark Extract on Streptococcus sobrinus: :Mohashine Bhuiyan MD et al - Dept of Pedia Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
11.Sterility effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on male rat :Masoumeh Mahmoudi Meymand et al - Journal of Reproduction and Infertility • Volume 3, Issue 2, Year 2002
12. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae:
Fredros O Okumu, Bart GJ Knols and Ulrike Fillinger - Malaria Journal 2007
13. Antifungal activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on postharvest diseases in fruits Jingfa Wang, Jian Li, Jiankang Cao and Weibo Jiang - African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4
14. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats R.R. Chattopadhyay* and M. Bandyopadhyay - African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol 8

 Erode farmer develops herbal pesticides from leaves
  K M Chellamuthu an Erode farmer develops herbal pesticides from 
a proportional mixture of neem seed, calotrophies (erukku), aloevera,
vitex negundo (nochhi) and clerodendrum phlomidis (tazhutazhai) that could act as a pesticide without causing harm to human beings. 

He has won an award from the National Innovation Foundation for his achievement "The pesticide should be diluted with water before spraying. Since it doesn't have any side-effects, there is no precaution to be taken. If
applied properly, it will destroy all the pesticides commonly found in plants," he said.

 Gypsy moth infestation
 To control Gypsy moth infestation injecting trees with the bio-insecticide TreeAzin, formulated with the extract from the neem tree. Health Canada has approved the treatment to control emerald ash borer, gypsy moth, tent caterpillar, spruce budworm, Jack Pine budworm, arborvitae leaf miner, sawflies, including birch leaf miner, and pine false webworm.

  Ash tree treatment
 Oakville has the most aggressive EAB management program in the country,” Mayor Rob Burton said. In total, the Town is treating approximately 6,000 municipal ash trees on a bi-annual basis for the next 10 years; forty per cent receive treatment in odd years, while 60 per cent receive treatment in even years. TreeAzin is a natural and safe bio-insecticide derived from the seeds of the neem tree. It provides two years of protection against EAB before it must be reapplied.

   Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is now infesting ash trees across the Greater Toronto Area. The invasive pest is responsible for killing tens of millions of ash trees in Canada and the U.S. since 2002. This year is believed to be a tipping point for the EAB population in the GTA, a time when ash trees will begin to decline rapidly if left untreated. 


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Medicinal Plants and Herbs for health

Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag)
Anar (Pomegranate)
Ashoka Tree
Arjuna tree (Terminalia)
Aromatic and Medicinal Plants
Banyan tree
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
Bitter gourd a medicine
Coriander (Dhania)
Clove Plant

Fenugreek (Methi)
Gilloy (Tinospora Cordifolia)
Gokharu (Tribulus terrestris)
Guggul (Indian bdellium )
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Insulin Plant (Costus Ingneus)
Jatropha curcas
Jojoba Plant
Karonda (Carissa carandas)
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)
Kutki (Picrorhiza kurroa)

Malabar Nut (Adusa))
Mulhati ( Liquorice)
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
Parthenium Hystrophorous
Peepal Tree
Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa)

Rosemary (Rosmarinus)
Rauvolfia serpentina
Safed musli ( Chlorophytum borivilianum)
Sarsaparilla (Anantamul)
Shatavari (Asparagus0 
Sahijan (Moringa oleifera)
Sweet Neem (Murraya koenigii)
Tamarind (Imli)
Tulsi (Holy Basil)



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